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  • 巴甫雷什中学著名的历史教师 

    I have to answer, Fu Lei, an angry word, No. Um anger. Born in 1908 in Nanhui, Shanghai, the modern translators, scholars. 1924 admitted to the University of Shanghai Datong High. Times

    In the "五卅" campaign in winter 1927, the University of Paris in France to study liberal arts.

    Spring 1931 should be "the Royal Geographical Society of Italy," the invitation, published in Rome, entitled "National Revolutionary Army of the Northern Expedition in the Northern Warlords and the significance of the struggle," the famous speech, attacking the darkness of the rule of warlords. Return in autumn the same year, employed at the Shanghai College of Fine Arts to teach art history and French. Autumn 1934, with co-leaf evergreen "news reporting" magazine, editor-in-chief.

    During the Sino-Japanese War, and actively participate in various activities of the anti-Japanese national salvation. After the victory of the Anti-Japanese War, and马叙伦,陈叔通to make a declaration such as, preparation for the establishment of China Association for Promoting Democracy, and was elected as the first director. After the founding of New China, was selected as the first and second text, on behalf of the National Council representative, member of the Shanghai Municipal People's Political Consultative Conference.

    Shanghai Branch of Chinese Writers Association, a former director of the rank of secretary. Translation of foreign literature masterpiece 33. The sixties, with its research and translation of Balzac's works of excellence, the absorption by the French Association for the Study of Balzac.

    "Cultural Revolution" by the beginning of persecution, September 3, 1966 Chen Zhu and his wife both梅馥hanging apartments in Shanghai.

    Fu Lei final

    Fu Lei 1961 design in their own dictionary data access shelves.

    Severe in 1965 the political climate of Fu Lei will have no impact, we have from him a letter in October between the anti-rightist struggle in him but unable to protect the leadership of a long letter, will be able to clearly see Fu Lei had a feeling this unique "cold" temperature, like in a few years ago, and even more chill; In addition, the deterioration of his body; Fu Lei He asked whether that life or his health situation to an end, Therefore, he is very depressed in the mood, forced to write this letter.

    The letter said that since he had recently Balzac can be translated into Chinese of all, the remaining number of "conditions and the readers need to be inconsistent," he worried that the reader can not be used to analyze the criticism of Marxism-Leninism and "poisoning", and in the "cultural revolution under the situation and more concerned."

    To be able to feed themselves Fu Lei and his wife, and even prefer to give way - the Publishing House of the topics of translation, but the grief of his body, he "prematurely senile, mental retardation, growing, not only satisfied with the quality of work on progress and only one-third of a decade ago. coupled with the repeal of printed royalties, income drop, "he says, even if does not do away with printed money, given his mental state at that time the body are difficult to sustain their living. To this end, he said: by the end of 1964 to report to the Central Government has been - but for nearly a year later, he did not receive a response.

    Fu Lei know the people around him think that their home life always better than others, because there is a foreign name of a son, Fu Lei had therefore wrote, "In the future, when necessary, of course, was also honored foreign children mine to maintain a part of life, but considering all the various angles. that there are inappropriate. "Fu Lei confusing this surface, but those who know him will understand, Fu Lei son would never rely on to support - not only is his self-esteem, more Fu Lei's personality, he will not bow in the face of destiny, or at least not in that year: his past in order to "clean hands" and refused to receive from the state payroll. Money comes from several decades of life, and now with his body, he does not want his children think he is too overexert the past.

    Finally, at the end in the letter, Fu Lei is in the plea: He hopes the government can get some money to treat diseases and to maintain his livelihood, "because I read the public (who led) care over the years, the utmost care, so dare, according to In fact up to. ... ... I think the leadership of the public and the parties must be given the proper approach to help ... ... "

    Such a pretty硬汉子own over decades, have to present a soft讨饭吃down. This is a matter in October 1965.

    As Fu Lei, from the spring of 1966, he would smell the "atmosphere of the wind tower," the chill air. But he and the vast majority of Chinese people, did not expect the Games to the violent tsunami landslide pressure to each corner of the world, almost no one can be lucky rabbit.

    In that boring, a terrible summer evening, an old friend of Fu Lei Xu Liang weeks to see him. Fu Lei said to him: "If another situation like 1957, I was not prepared to live again."

    The afternoon of August 30, 1966. First, a number of areas to the Housing Authority, and the search for a long time, until the seven-point multi-leave. 23:00, Fu Lei砸门heard the voice, Zhu梅馥going to open, Fu Lei stopped her. Fu Lei, such as the door opened, the Red Guards carrying the blood of a child with bad taste over the coming Khan.

    Flashlight flashing through Guangzhu, Fu Lei recognize that they are people of the Shanghai Conservatory of Music.

    To Fu Lei of the Red Guards did not want to say, they are to search a so-called "Shanghai Conservatory of Music piano teacher's house to hide in the Fu Lei『 evidence ": the Red Guards, a suspicion of Music to her Piano Teacher what "transfer" to the Fu Lei home - Logically, Fu Lei unit has never been without a unit of the Red Guards and he has a direct relationship. In fact, they come to raid the real purpose is known as Fu Lei; Not only that, but also heard that Fu Lei live "bourgeois way of life"; what kind of lifestyle is the "bourgeois" type of it? Then view: Fu Lei Dou smoking is that a cup of coffee, there are also the use of Western equipment, but also goes without saying that he had so many shiny silver of the knife - he was not trying to use the knife去杀revolutionary? The young Red Guards to kill the revolution? Fu Lei was also the piano! Only those who have any leisure or play the piano before the bourgeois!

    Fu Lei and his wife in 1934 to celebrate the birth and took a photograph Fou.

    Fu Lei overseas relations我来回答,傅雷,字怒安,号怒庵。1908年生于上海南汇,现代翻译家、学者。1924年考入上海大同大学附中。次






































    「好,革命的同学们,红卫兵小将们,你们再听听这封一九五五年十二月二十七号的一封反革命黑信:「『以音乐而论,我觉得你的协奏曲非常含蓄……』废话!」一个戴着一副小眼镜儿的女红卫兵在念,傅雷认得她是钢琴系的学生,她一边念一边批判,「资产阶级的孝子贤孙当然会弹资产阶级的曲子!你们听,」我觉得你的协奏曲非常含蓄,绝无罗宾斯但那种伤感情调,你的情感都是内在的。第一乐章的技巧不尽完整,结尾部分似乎很明显有些毛病。第二乐章细腻之极。tone(音色)是delicate(精致)之极。最后一章非常brilliant(美妙),摇篮曲比给奖音乐会上好得多,mood(情感)也不同,更安静。幻想曲全部改变了:开头的引子,好极,沉着,庄严,贝多芬气息很重。中间那段slow(慢板)的singing part(如歌的部分),以前你弹得很tragic(悲)的,很sad(伤感)的,现在是一种惆怅的情调。整个曲子像一座巍峨的建筑,给人以厚重、扎实、条理分明、波涛汹涌而意志很热忱的感觉……』」





    听 到她这么一说,几十个红卫兵都静下来了:有几个已经准备好了他们手中的皮带,他们把皮带大金属扣的部分移向中间--这样金属就可以直接接触被打入的皮肉,他们试验过,重重的一皮带下去,如果是击在头部的太阳穴处,能把那个人当场打昏过去。



































    傅雷夫妇死后被火化,可是在那一段时间,他们的骨灰无人敢认领。多亏一位素不相识的、曾经是热爱傅雷译文的文学女青年--冒充是傅家的亲戚,同时也真的找到了一位傅雷的亲戚,他们一起去认领了,然后把他们夫妇安放在了墓地;又有一位善心的守墓人将其做了记号,最后才不至于丢失。       27315希望对你有帮助!
    09-07-21 历史 匿名
  • 川教版七年级下册历史复习提纲下学期川教版 

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    09-07-21 历史 匿名
  • 对民间信仰的认识 

    China mainly refers to popular folk belief of God faith. Traditional beliefs of his gods and the gods of various religions repeated screening, eliminated, combined, constitute a mess of supernatural belief systems. Do not ask the gods came from various sources, and Wang Ling on the incense. Clearly reflects the diversity of belief and secular utilitarian.

    Nature of God

    The so-called natural God, referring to the personification of natural phenomena after being upgraded to God. Folk beliefs in China there are many natural God, they are introduced here in ancient China that affect relatively few natural God.

    金阙Haotian, Jade s big, mysterious high-dome of God. Taoism is the highest God元始s, but in the folk beliefs of the status of the Jade元始s far more than to become the gods to rule the world the supremacy of God, thus the original god of Taoism gradually were relegated to the highest臣下Jade.

    Queen Mother is also the worship of the most widely secular worship of God. Also known as Queen Mother of the West Queen Mother, mother Yao Chi Kim. Enshrines many people because of the legend of the impact of Queen Mother of the West. For example, the legend of the Queen Mother was a Lady雍容华贵, July 7 a year, she sent four peach Emperor, Emperor after eating, feel good, want to take the nuclear species. Queen Mother said that this ancient knot a peach fruit species of the world can not live. And legends say that Hou Yi had obtained the Queen Mother of the West peach, it is the medicine of immortality longevity was Chang'e a steal, or on the moon. All these legends Queen Mother makes people more faith that the life that she could bless Tim.

    Folk beliefs in the Shenlong mine poll body, long beaked bird, chicken feet, back there翅翼, hand-held hammer vertebra. Mine evolved from worship of the worship of the Lightning is also a Chinese folk belief, a major feature of Sky. Chinese folk beliefs like marriage to the gods, therefore, in folk belief, the Raytheon dependencies associated with the lightning of God, there is Leigong Dianmu.

    东岳大帝is the god of Mount Tai, is an important Taoist mountain. Dongyue but God is regarded as the Secretary of the main offerings, Mount Tai has become a ghost of the House rule. This is Why? Ago in the Qin and Han Dynasty, China did not have the concept of heaven to hell, only to claim their lives. Since the Han Dynasty, people believe that after death魂归Taishan, Taishan became Ghost House rule. Became head of the dead东岳大帝18 layers of life and death hell and the world of the dead king as high or low. After the Tang and Song dynasties, and Buddhism东岳大帝hell Netherworld Taoism, along with folklore, the formation of the Chinese folk belief in the underworld of hell. 6 Buddhist reincarnation in hell, and its rulers, that is, the king of the dead, that is, Hades. During the Tang dynasty there is the ten hell. In Taoism there are the king of the dead, called Feng are the Great, is the world's cases of spirits. Feng are referring to the northern shore of the Yangtze River in eastern Sichuan, Feng are now called Fengdu. Fengdu City Wing-ping both the Northeast Mountains, that is, China You are well-known is the rule阎王爷Taoist ghost of the Netherworld. According to "NABI Kingdoms", the General Shang Huang东岳大帝is Feihu,姜子牙death was first called Five Sacred Mountains, 18 re-charge of the dead to hell. Pucheng County in Shanxi Province is a typical Mount Dongyue Temple Fair, all built in the ground, a complete layer of hell 18. The top layer is Feihu东岳大帝yellow, followed by the ten Yama, six Cao Magistrate, all angry圆睁, lifelike form. Hell there are 120 in冤鬼endure刀山, milling, cut out eyes, cutting off the tongue, heart post-mortem, sawing, fried, such as all forms of torture, in Chinese mythology represents the truth of hell.东岳大帝this time, with the original God of Mount Tai, is completely not the same thing as the.

    Occupational God

    Folk beliefs in a larger portion of the industry also includes the functions of God's worship, pay attention to old customs of great respect for teachers. Worship ancestral tablets in their homes, families are described as "Heaven, earth, emperor, parent and teacher" or "heaven and earth and the People First Division", in which "the teacher" as one of five. Various industries throughout the country spread through the ages have worshiped "祖师爷" the customs, the more common are:

    Agriculture. Worship God and Ceres soil. The ancestor of the Zhou Dynasty were abandoned, also known as后稷, in Yao, Shun was closed to do during the agricultural officer, Mr Christians to cultivate millet, so future generations respect for the founder of agriculture, and social unity of God, called the Land of God, Murano between every 35 years on the Agrocybe street has a small矮屋-土地庙, Anhui southwest area known as the "Temple worship agency" have the statue dedicated to the land laws. The 20th century to the mid-60s, the土地庙were removed; and the restoration of 90's.

    Tailoring industry. Xuanyuan enshrined's (the Yellow Emperor). "Historical Records", said the Yellow Emperor: "姬姓, No. Xuanyuan's, there熊氏." Thie-Tzuen after Chinese civilization as "初祖humanities." Rumors have been taught the Yellow Emperor by the people to wear with bone needles sewing thread made of animal skin clothes and leaves. It was respect for the founder sewing industry.

    Sericultural. Lei enshrined ancestors (also for tired progenitor). She is a legend of the Yellow Emperor's wife, had Christians rule silk sericulture, silkworm later deemed to be of the Northern Zhou Dynasty God.

    Wine industry. Where brewing, pubs, restaurants are enshrined as the founder Dukang. Dukang that Shaukang for the summer of the fifth generation of the monarchy. "Shuo Wen Jie Zi" as "ancient箕帚early Shaukang, kaoliang liquor." Also rumors have禹帝fate "Miriam Di brewery" in some places also Miriam Di respect for the founder of the Wine Industry.

    Mason wood. With respect for the founder Luban. That they are indeed the history of people's public transportation, people like (take a homonym for the word "class"), the Spring and Autumn when the Lu people, it said Luban, life created a ladder, stone, wood and wooden tools such as Fei Wu, inventors at the time outstanding.

    Rail industry. Blacksmith, coppersmith, silversmith and the metalworking industry have respect for the founder Taishang Senior. "Communication with the I" said: "Taishang Senior, Lee of the ears, the word伯阳, a重耳; born white first, so No. I; ears there are three missing, and its old Dan." I have been casting gossip legend Furnace (later known as the "Laojun furnace") to longevity丹药refining.

    Education. Respect for the great sage and teacher of Confucius, Jesus Christ师表. Old scholars, students, school children together at home, Chiang Kai-shek, school, county school, government school, the University dedicated to Confucius in the main hall tablets. Hill of Confucius, Confucius words, when the Spring and Autumn Lu ap corner (now the city of Qufu in Shandong Province) who is committed to education and his later years writing legislation that he had delegated teaching known as "disciples three dry, sage 70."

    商业. Memorial tablets dedicated to the God of Wealth. Taoism from "赵公Marshal" for the God of Wealth, and its concentration should be as black-faced, black tiger seat;姓赵passed its people, its Gongming, Qin attained in Zhongnanshan, titles as "being a玄坛Marshal." Fan Li also respect for the business founder. Fan Li,中国民间信仰主要指俗神信仰。他把传统信仰的神灵和各种宗教的神灵进行反复筛选、淘汰、组合,构成一个杂乱的神灵信仰体系。不问各路神灵的出身来历,有灵就香火旺。鲜明地反映了中国世俗信仰的多元性和功利性。


     所谓自然神,指的是自然现象被人格化之后升格为神。在中国民间信仰中有许多自然神, 们这里主要介绍在中国古代比较有影响的几个自然神。






     在民间信仰中还包括较大一部分行业职能神的崇拜,旧俗极具讲究尊师重道。民家供奉祖宗牌位,正户题名为“天地君亲师”或称“天地国亲师”,其中“师道”列为五尊之一.  国各地各行业千古流传,均有供奉“祖师爷”的习俗,较常见有:

















     财神崇拜也是最普遍的世俗神信仰之一。明代传说招财进宝利市之神是赵公元帅,即赵公明。此神下属有四神,即招宝天尊曹升、纳珍天尊曹宝、招财使者陈九公、利市仙官姚少司。这班神灵都是专司钱财珍宝的神,以赵公明为主财大神。明清两代财神庙香火极盛。商贾百姓年年都要迎祭财神。财神的形象为黑面多须,手执钢鞭,跨下黑虎,一副武将装束。因此,在民间又俗称为"武财神"在财神生日到来的前一天晚上,各家置办酒席,为财神贺辰。初五接财神,赵公元帅最受尊拜。许多商店、住宅都供奉他的木版印刷神像,神像面似锅底,手执钢鞭,身骑黑虎,极其威武。正月初五,各商店开市,一大早就敲锣打鼓放爆竹,迎接财神。信奉关帝圣君的商家,在正月初五要为关公供上牲醴,鸣放爆竹,烧金纸膜拜,求关圣帝君保佑一年财运亨通。 为满足人们升官发财、多子多福、福寿延年的需求,后来又相继出现众多的文官门神和祈福门神。祈福门神并非门户的保护者,只是为祈福而用,中心人物为赐福天官。也有刘海戏金蟾,招财童子小财神。供奉、张贴者的家庭多为商界人物,希望从祈福门神那儿得到功名利禄。经历代变迁,门神已成为多功能的保护神,具有驱邪魔、卫家宅、保平安、助功利、降吉祥等功能,成为最受欢迎的民间俗神之一,历久不衰,至今仍盛。如果按照起源来划分,那么财神可以归为 们下面所要介绍的人神一类,而门神属于自然神, 们按其功能将这些神归入职业神一类。也有些学者另辟一类,将福、禄、寿、喜、财、门神等归入社会神。


  • 萨拉龙加真实历史  

    Walter defend Sarajevo "in the prototype of the legendary hero Walter is Marshal Josip Broz Tito (1892-1980), Chairman of the Yugoslav Communist League, founder of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, co-founder of the Non-Aligned Movement 1.

    Also, the Internet, said Walter was indeed in the history of its people. He has served as a prefectural Party committee secretary of SADC in Sarajevo, the guerrilla chief, in 1945, when the Soviet Red Army guns roar in the distance when the people of Sarajevo, led by his positive way to start care and care for mine and plant care movement, when the ex City of Devils announced hang a white flag to surrender, the power plant is in front of the command of the Sarajevo Walter was hit by a stray bullet, the glorious sacrifice, do not see the red flag flying in a free land that day. Was 26 years old.瓦尔特保卫萨拉热窝》中传奇英雄瓦尔特的原型是约瑟普·布罗兹·铁托元帅(1892-1980),南斯拉夫共产主义者联盟主席,南斯拉夫社会主义联邦共和国缔造者,不结盟运动创始人之一。

    09-07-20 历史 匿名
  • 新中国取得的历史性成就说明了什麽 

    (A) the establishment of New China to the present, the Chinese people along the socialist road, after half a century of hard work has made great achievements attracting worldwide attention.

        First, from the fight for economic independence to build a socialist modernized country.

        More than 50 years, the leadership of the Communist Party of China National People's tough economy, so that an extremely backward economy and culture of old China into a prosperous new socialist preliminary struggle, thrifty nation-building, in a basis of poverty and weakness on the establishment of independent and relatively complete China's industrial system and national. Since the Third Plenary Session of the CPC, reform and opening up has entered a new era of modernization. In the Party's basic line of the primary stage of socialism under the guidance of socialism with Chinese characteristics strides the great cause of socialist market economy system preliminarily established, the country's comprehensive national strength and people's standard of living increases. In 2005, GDP reached 2.2 trillion U.S. dollars (world ranking rose to fourth place), per capita GDP of nearly 1700 U.S. dollars, in 1949 were 25.8 times and 25 times in 1978, 18.8 times and 18 times. The main industrial and agricultural output ranks the world.

        Secondly, to win political independence from the building of socialist democratic politics.

        More than 50 years, in establishing the working class people's democratic dictatorship led by the national system, to win political independence on the basis of people's congress system, the CPC-led multi-party cooperation and political consultation system, the system of regional ethnic autonomy a basic political system of socialism be established, to maintain and further improve. Of the Chinese nation to achieve an unprecedented solidarity and unity, development and expansion of the patriotic united front, national, religious and overseas Chinese affairs to flourish. Hong Kong and Macao to the motherland has enriched the "one country, two systems" theory and practice. Third Plenary Session of the PRC to achieve the great historic turning point, based on the continuous strengthening of socialist democracy, political reform steps and stages steady progress, and gradually formed the leadership of the CPC, the people are the masters , the rule of law a unified socialist state-owned machine-building the basic framework of democratic politics.

        Third, from the development of new democratic culture to the construction of socialist culture with Chinese characteristics.

    Socialist culture with Chinese characteristics is developed from the new democratic culture, a manifestation of the Chinese Communist Party in promoting construction of China's advanced culture and the same with the times. In building socialism with Chinese characteristics under the guidance of the principle of culture, a positive development toward modernization, the world, future-oriented, national, scientific and popular socialist culture, and to carry forward and cultivate the national spirit, and earnestly strengthen ideological and moral building, vigorously develop education and science, and actively develop cultural undertakings and cultural industries, and continue to deepen reform of the cultural system, in order to build a well-off society, to reinforce the provision of comprehensive national strength to support the flow of culture.

        Fourthly, to break the blockade from the all-round opening up.

        New China since its founding, the Western countries to break the blockade, development of economic and trade exchanges with all countries, in order to achieve domestic peace and the building of a favorable external conditions, have made unremitting efforts. 20th century 70s to the normalization of Sino-US relations as a breakthrough point, brought China and the establishment of diplomatic relations between Western countries climax for the implementation of opening-up strategy was to create a favorable international environment. After the Third Plenary Session of the CPC, the reform initiated by Deng Xiaoping at the same time, promote the formation of a new opening to the outside world situation. To promote economic development and improving people's lives is the central task facing the country. China strive for a peaceful international environment to develop itself through its own development to promote world peace and development has always been unswervingly follow the road of peaceful development, maintaining world peace and promoting the development of an important force in the world.

        Fifth, from the "millet plus rifles" to the progressive realization of the modernization of national defense.

        Modern history of China's humiliating history has taught the Chinese people to safeguard national dignity and sovereignty, we must have a strong national defense modernization. More than 50 years, the People's Liberation Army in China under the leadership of the Communist Party, and resolutely safeguard the motherland's territorial integrity and sovereignty, in the realization of the process of modernization of national defense, has been developed and the successful launch of the "two bombs and one satellite", such as a world-renowned成就. The new century, the People's Liberation Army and People's Armed Police Force and other armed forces around the "winning the war" and "degenerate" two major issues, in accordance with qualified politically and competent militarily, a fine style of work, strict discipline and the general requirements of the protection of powerful, from the Yan army, army to accelerate the revolution in military affairs with Chinese characteristics and preparations for military struggle, to strengthen the revolutionary armed forces, modernization and regularization, fewer but better troops with Chinese characteristics, follow the road to continue to forge ahead.

      (B) What these achievements?

        Since the founding of new China more than 50 years of history have shown that only socialism can save China, to the development of China, the Chinese Communist Party is leading the Chinese revolution, construction and reform the core of strength. Only under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, the socialist road with Chinese characteristics, to achieve the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.(一)从新中国成立到现在,中国人民沿着社会主义道路,经过半个世纪的艰苦奋斗,取得了举世瞩目的巨大成就。












      新中国成立以来50多年的历史昭示 们,只有社会主义才能救中国,才能发展中国,中国共产党是领导中国革命、建设、改革事业的核心力量。只有在中国共产党的领导下,走中国特色社会主义道路,才能实现中华民族的伟大复兴。
    09-07-20 历史 匿名
  • 论邓小平理论的全球化视野及其在21世纪的历史地位  

    On the Deng Xiaoping Theory and Globalization in the 21st century the historical status of

    Key words "world history" theory / Deng Xiaoping Theory / Globalization / historical status

    Body 【】

    To the mainstream of economic globalization, the globalization trend is evident in the fact, but it is not started today. In fact, the rise of capitalism, they began their journey, but in today's world of economic globalization and the trend is more prominent but greatly enhanced. Surprisingly, as early as age 40 in the 19th century, Marx's insight on its amazing the world took note of the historical development of economic globalization trend, a declaration of "economic globalization" era. In his "Communist Manifesto" stated that: "increasing the need for product sales, driven by the bourgeoisie in running all over the world. It must be set up everywhere, everywhere business networking everywhere. The bourgeoisie, as a result of the global market has opened up so that all countries production and consumption have become a world-wide. ... ... the past that local and national self-sufficiency and to close the door, and were of various nationalities in all aspects of mutual exchanges and mutual respect instead of relying on the. "[1] ( P245-255) focused on this point of view reflected in the "German Ideology" that he is the "world history" theory. In this theory, Marxism has a specific meaning to the "World History" concept analysis, characterization and revealed the "economic globalization" of the historical trend. Therefore, in the rolling wave of globalization today, an accurate grasp of Marx's "World History" theory, conscious use of this theory point of view, methods, and global perspective to analyze and solve problems, and its contemporary significance is particularly important.

    In response, Deng Xiaoping set us brilliant examples. He's building socialism with Chinese characteristics, not only blazed the Marxist theory of "world history" theory brilliant, but also to address the issue of China as the starting point for Marx's "World History" theory has given new characteristics of the times, to fill the theoretical some gaps, so the inheritance and development of Marx's "World History" theory, which also highlights the Deng Xiaoping Theory and the grand vision of globalization. Therefore, Marx set out Deng Xiaoping's "World History" theory of inheritance and development of our correct understanding of Deng Xiaoping Theory in the surging wave of economic globalization, the historical status of the 21st century, and unswervingly hold high the great banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the building of China characteristics, has important theoretical and practical significance.

    First, Deng Xiaoping Theory and Globalization: The Marx's "World History" theory of the inheritance and development of

    First, Deng Xiaoping, the modern world in a profound grasp of the historical characteristics of the times of opening to the outside world based on the theory, pointed out that in the economically backward based on the primary stage of socialism in the "World History" or "economic globalization," the background the only way for the modernization of the next, highlights the history of the world the theory of Marxism of contemporary significance, is Marx's "World History" theory and the reality of contemporary China and the characteristics of the times a product of the combination.

    Marx's theory of world history, "world history" is not a makeshift mechanical history, nor is it the beginning, and it is a development, changes in a certain stage in the history of the product, "as the world's history is the history of results. " [2] (P112) of its meaning, from the horizontal point of view, is to build a huge development in terms of productivity on the basis of the universal inter-ethnic contacts; from the vertical point of view, the former refers to the backward productive forces of capitalism, the basis of division of labor history can be divided in the narrow area in the development of the nation, it is impossible to form interaction of all ethnic groups, the pattern of interdependence, when the history of nations does not constitute a "world history"; only when the world has opened up a large-scale industrial markets commercial, traffic has been tremendous development in breaking the limit to create a natural barrier between the nation's productivity and the means of production, the "world history" can be formed. Such as Marx said: "all the activities of mutual influence in the development process more and more expanded, closed-door policy of all ethnic groups in the state of the original sound because of the growing mode of production, exchange, and therefore developed their own division of labor between the various ethnic groups and the elimination of a more complete history on the extent of the growing history of the world. "[1] (P51) In short, Marx said" the history of the world "refers to the development of productive forces in the world specific stage, all nationalities, all countries have adopted universal contacts entered a state of interdependence, since the formation of the world's overall history. It was formed in the era of capitalism. Its basic characteristics are: 1, open, that is, all nationalities, all full of mutual influence, mutual restraint, mutual infiltration into a complex world as the center of the world's people rely on the comprehensive. 2, mobility, resulting in a large-scale world market, the international consortium and the global cycle of material flow, capital flow, technology flow, personnel flow, etc.. Marx's "World History" concept, characterization, revealed it is "economic globalization" of the historical trend.

    The formation of the history of the world means that the formation of the world's productive forces, as well as the world's productive forces can use this. Therefore, Marx said: "The creation of a place of productivity, in particular, the invention, in the future development will be lost, depending on the extension of contacts. When the contact is limited to adjacent areas when each of the invention in each of places have to be a fresh start. "" Only in the nature of contacts with the world, and to large industrial base, the only nation involved in all competition, the preservation of living has been created only a guarantee of productivity. "[1 ] (P60-61) Therefore, the history of the world, "every single individual in order to shake off the limitations of a variety of ethnic and geographical limitations, and with the production of the world as a whole (also including the spirit of the production) linked to, and may have the strength to the use of such full-scale production around the world (all created by people). "[1] (P67-68)

    Marx's theory of world history shows that the above-mentioned point of view: in the era of world history, no country can not be self-sufficient, inward-looking development of high-speed cases, the national economy, on the "post-development" especially for the countries. Therefore, the opening to the outside world is economically backward countries the only way to prosperity, this is the history of the world Marxist theory of the logic behind the conclusions.

    In contemporary, with the development of productive forces,论邓小平理论的全球化视野及其在21世纪的历史地位

    【关 键 词】“世界历史”理论/邓小平理论/全球化视野/历史地位
    【 正 文 】
    09-07-20 历史 匿名
  • 如何看待西方列强入侵对近代中国的影响以香港为例  

    A certain point of view, a modern history of China, which is lagging behind China's humiliating history of being beaten. Humiliating situation for this reason, the western capitalist powers on the one hand, China's aggression, on the other hand, the backwardness of China's social system. Western powers on China's aggression is one of the world capitalist development, the inevitable product of capitalist countries to open up a colony for the world an important part of hegemony. Powers of aggression against China and the characteristics of the changes in the way it is with the whole process of capitalist development are closely linked with the contradictions. Western powers of aggression against China have had a profound social impact, not only hinder the pace of modernization of China, at the same time to stimulate an objective of China's new relations of production rise. Can be the subject to attention from the two aspects: on the one hand, capitalism in the West's relations with foreign powers against China, on the one hand, the great powers of aggression against China and Chinese society at all levels to explore resistance, China's changes in the relationship between socio-economic development.

     The first phase: the Opium War to the Sino-Japanese War Sino-Japanese War (1840 ~ 1894). This stage, the Western powers against China is the main means of waging war, mainly through export of commodities, a major invasion of China, France and the United States the country is British and other Western industrialized countries, as well as Russia. During this period, countries such as Britain and France for the plundering of raw materials, develop new markets, Russia continued its policy of aggression against China, they are from the sea and land launched aggression against China, has launched the two Opium Wars and the Sino-French War, forced the Chinese signed the "Nanjing Treaty" and a series of unequal treaties, the loss of China's territorial sovereignty. Aggression by foreign powers in China has gradually become a semi-colonial semi-feudal society as dumping goods and predatory powers of the place of raw materials.

      second phase: Sino-Japanese War Sino-Japanese War to the end of the First World War (1894 ~ 1918). Invasion of China during this period the way the Western powers in the political tide on the first and then gradually started to carve up the implementation of the "China Zhi-Hua" policy; economy dominated by export of commodities to the export of capital-based transition. At that time, Western countries the main pattern of invasion is a common control, the United States an advantage to the Japanese during World War I temporarily dominate China. During this period, Britain France and the United States and other countries to further the development of capitalism, Russia embarked on the capitalist road. Then, the major capitalist countries began the transition to imperialism. They began to further external expansion, that is, collusion between them and scramble to the use of force and war caused by China's vast border areas of crisis, launched the Sino-Japanese War Sino-Japanese war, a war of aggression, such as Eight-Power Allied Forces invaded China. Them to large-scale exporter of capital to control the economic lifeline of China, to snatch the way mineral rights in China to provide political loans, a large-scale factories. They forcibly occupied leased territory, divided into spheres of influence, an attempt to carve up China, China as a colony changed. The U.S. "open door" policy put forward, marking the independence of the United States has been the policy of aggression against China, but also to some extent, upon the formation of the joint powers of the alliance in China. In the fight against the Boxer Rebellion, the imperialists changed the policy to divide up the implementation of the "China Zhi-Hua" strategy, first the Qing government to foster, nurture Yuan after the Revolution. During this period, the contradiction between imperialism increasingly sharp, and the three interference also Liao, the Russo-Japanese War, between the Government Hospital, Japan declared war on Germany and so is the embodiment of these contradictions.

      The third stage: a post-war to the end of World War II (1919 ~ 1945). Invasion of China by foreign powers during this period is mainly from the "China Zhi-hua," to the occupation of China. At that time, first major invasion of China by the joint powers dominated exclusively by the Japanese. I. After the war, Japan and the United States become a scramble for China's major rivals, the Washington Conference of China broke the hegemony of the situation in Japan, China returned to the domination of foreign powers together. Preliminary ruling Nationalist government, the United States invasion of China in safeguarding the rights and interests of the "open door" policy, condone the Japanese invasion of China; Japan to step up implementation of the "mainland policy," launched in 1931, "September 18" incident, the formation of the Asian source of war, and in 1937 launched an all-out war of aggression against China, to form China, Japan to dominate the situation.

      Phase IV: After the Second World War to the Korean War (1945 ~ 1953). This period, the imperialist invasion of China first approach "to China Zhi-Hua", after the development of isolation, blockade, siege. The major countries of aggression against China, the United States. After World War II the United States established the position of world hegemony, control of China in support of Chiang Kai-shek to fight a civil war. After the founding of new China, the United States has taken the political isolation, economic blockade, military siege and other policies, a threat to the security of our country to launch the Korean War and sent the Seventh Fleet into the Taiwan Strait to prevent the liberation of Taiwan in China.

    In modern China, that is, the modernization and industrialization accompanied by industrialization and with the political, economic and cultural development and change. After the Opium War of aggression of foreign forces into China's capitalist future, it is necessary to maintain intact the feudal society impossible. Imperialist rule does not allow China to close the door forces, but also will not allow him to all remain the same. In this case, the emergence of modern China of two tendencies, one is allowed within the scope of the imperialist modernization, that is not a fundamental change in the feudal political and economic system, only in certain areas within a limited extent to the capitalist system side changes. Westernization Group on behalf of its earliest. One is the extent permitted by the imperialist breakthrough to achieve national independence, in order to achieve modernization. Is the pioneer of the bourgeois reformism. China's feudal society was not capitalist normal embryonic development, and brought China into a capitalist society because of imperialist control over China's political and economic lifeline. Of course, the invasion of foreign capitalism on the natural economy of China has played a role in the collapse of the destruction, thus contributing to the commodity economy and capitalist development factors, the Chinese national capital has the privilege of not only by the exclusion of foreign capital, and unable to stand up to China's social dominance in the former living in the capitalist system of exploitation. Imperialism on behalf of the landlord class and the comprador bureaucratic forces in the capital interests of the warlords. Feudal land relations, commercial loan sharks and all the former capital of exploitation of the capitalist system and the superstructure, as a result of imperialism and to the continued existence of the maintenance. Imperialist aggression to block China's industrialization and democratization in the path of independent development, China has become a semi-colonial At the same time, in a feudal state. Therefore, in modern China, is facing two problems: How to get rid of imperialist domination and oppression, became an independent country; how to make China's modernization. These two are closely related. The first从某种角度看,一部中国近代史,也就是中国落后挨打的屈辱史。造成这种屈辱局面的原因,一方面是西方资本主义列强对中国的侵略,另一方面是中国社会制度的落后。西方列强对中国的侵略是世界资本主义发展的必然产物,是资本主义国家开拓殖民地、争夺世界霸权的重要组成部分。列强侵华方式与特点的变化,是与整个资本主义的发展过程与矛盾息息相关的。西方列强的侵略对中国社会产生了深远的影响,既阻碍了中国近代化的步伐,同时客观上刺激了中国新的生产关系的兴起。本主题的内容可从两个方面去注意:一方面是西方资本主义发展与列强侵华的关系,一方面是列强侵华与中国社会各阶级的探索抗争、中国社会经济发展变化的关系。
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    09-07-20 历史 匿名
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