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  • 巴甫雷什中学著名的历史教师 

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    I have to answer, Fu Lei, an angry word, No. Um anger. Born in 1908 in Nanhui, Shanghai, the modern translators, scholars. 1924 admitted to the University of Shanghai Datong High. Times



    In the "五卅" campaign in winter 1927, the University of Paris in France to study liberal arts.







    Spring 1931 should be "the Royal Geographical Society of Italy," the invitation, published in Rome, entitled "National Revolutionary Army of the Northern Expedition in the Northern Warlords and the significance of the struggle," the famous speech, attacking the darkness of the rule of warlords. Return in autumn the same year, employed at the Shanghai College of Fine Arts to teach art history and French. Autumn 1934, with co-leaf evergreen "news reporting" magazine, editor-in-chief.







    During the Sino-Japanese War, and actively participate in various activities of the anti-Japanese national salvation. After the victory of the Anti-Japanese War, and马叙伦,陈叔通to make a declaration such as, preparation for the establishment of China Association for Promoting Democracy, and was elected as the first director. After the founding of New China, was selected as the first and second text, on behalf of the National Council representative, member of the Shanghai Municipal People's Political Consultative Conference.







    Shanghai Branch of Chinese Writers Association, a former director of the rank of secretary. Translation of foreign literature masterpiece 33. The sixties, with its research and translation of Balzac's works of excellence, the absorption by the French Association for the Study of Balzac.







    "Cultural Revolution" by the beginning of persecution, September 3, 1966 Chen Zhu and his wife both梅馥hanging apartments in Shanghai.







    Fu Lei final











    Fu Lei 1961 design in their own dictionary data access shelves.







    Severe in 1965 the political climate of Fu Lei will have no impact, we have from him a letter in October between the anti-rightist struggle in him but unable to protect the leadership of a long letter, will be able to clearly see Fu Lei had a feeling this unique "cold" temperature, like in a few years ago, and even more chill; In addition, the deterioration of his body; Fu Lei He asked whether that life or his health situation to an end, Therefore, he is very depressed in the mood, forced to write this letter.











    The letter said that since he had recently Balzac can be translated into Chinese of all, the remaining number of "conditions and the readers need to be inconsistent," he worried that the reader can not be used to analyze the criticism of Marxism-Leninism and "poisoning", and in the "cultural revolution under the situation and more concerned."











    To be able to feed themselves Fu Lei and his wife, and even prefer to give way - the Publishing House of the topics of translation, but the grief of his body, he "prematurely senile, mental retardation, growing, not only satisfied with the quality of work on progress and only one-third of a decade ago. coupled with the repeal of printed royalties, income drop, "he says, even if does not do away with printed money, given his mental state at that time the body are difficult to sustain their living. To this end, he said: by the end of 1964 to report to the Central Government has been - but for nearly a year later, he did not receive a response.











    Fu Lei know the people around him think that their home life always better than others, because there is a foreign name of a son, Fu Lei had therefore wrote, "In the future, when necessary, of course, was also honored foreign children mine to maintain a part of life, but considering all the various angles. that there are inappropriate. "Fu Lei confusing this surface, but those who know him will understand, Fu Lei son would never rely on to support - not only is his self-esteem, more Fu Lei's personality, he will not bow in the face of destiny, or at least not in that year: his past in order to "clean hands" and refused to receive from the state payroll. Money comes from several decades of life, and now with his body, he does not want his children think he is too overexert the past.











    Finally, at the end in the letter, Fu Lei is in the plea: He hopes the government can get some money to treat diseases and to maintain his livelihood, "because I read the public (who led) care over the years, the utmost care, so dare, according to In fact up to. ... ... I think the leadership of the public and the parties must be given the proper approach to help ... ... "











    Such a pretty硬汉子own over decades, have to present a soft讨饭吃down. This is a matter in October 1965.











    As Fu Lei, from the spring of 1966, he would smell the "atmosphere of the wind tower," the chill air. But he and the vast majority of Chinese people, did not expect the Games to the violent tsunami landslide pressure to each corner of the world, almost no one can be lucky rabbit.











    In that boring, a terrible summer evening, an old friend of Fu Lei Xu Liang weeks to see him. Fu Lei said to him: "If another situation like 1957, I was not prepared to live again."











    The afternoon of August 30, 1966. First, a number of areas to the Housing Authority, and the search for a long time, until the seven-point multi-leave. 23:00, Fu Lei砸门heard the voice, Zhu梅馥going to open, Fu Lei stopped her. Fu Lei, such as the door opened, the Red Guards carrying the blood of a child with bad taste over the coming Khan.











    Flashlight flashing through Guangzhu, Fu Lei recognize that they are people of the Shanghai Conservatory of Music.











    To Fu Lei of the Red Guards did not want to say, they are to search a so-called "Shanghai Conservatory of Music piano teacher's house to hide in the Fu Lei『 evidence ": the Red Guards, a suspicion of Music to her Piano Teacher what "transfer" to the Fu Lei home - Logically, Fu Lei unit has never been without a unit of the Red Guards and he has a direct relationship. In fact, they come to raid the real purpose is known as Fu Lei; Not only that, but also heard that Fu Lei live "bourgeois way of life"; what kind of lifestyle is the "bourgeois" type of it? Then view: Fu Lei Dou smoking is that a cup of coffee, there are also the use of Western equipment, but also goes without saying that he had so many shiny silver of the knife - he was not trying to use the knife去杀revolutionary? The young Red Guards to kill the revolution? Fu Lei was also the piano! Only those who have any leisure or play the piano before the bourgeois!











    Fu Lei and his wife in 1934 to celebrate the birth and took a photograph Fou.







    Fu Lei overseas relations我来回答,傅雷,字怒安,号怒庵。1908年生于上海南汇,现代翻译家、学者。1924年考入上海大同大学附中。次

    年参加“五卅”运动,1927年冬赴法国入巴黎大学文科学习。



    1931年春应“意大利皇家地理学会”邀请,在罗马发表题为《国民革命军北伐与北洋军阀斗争的意义》的著名讲演,抨击北洋军阀的黑暗统治。同年秋返国,受聘在上海美术专科学校讲授美术史和法文。1934年秋,与叶常青合办《时事汇报》周刊,任总编辑。



    抗日战争期间,积极参加各种抗日救亡活动。抗战胜利后,与马叙伦、陈叔通等发表宣言,筹备成立中国民主促进会,并当选为第一届理事。新中国成立后,被选为第一、二届全国文代会代表、上海市政协委员。



    曾任中国作家协会上海分会理事、书记处书记等职。翻译外国文学名著33部。六十年代,以其研究与翻译巴尔扎克著作的卓越成就,被法国吸收为巴尔扎克研究协会会员。



    “文革”初受到迫害,1966年9月3日晨和他的夫人朱梅馥在上海寓所双双自缢。



    最后的傅雷





    1961年傅雷在自己设计的字典架上查阅资料。



    一九六五年严峻的政治气候对傅雷不会没有影响,我们从他十月间写给一位曾在反右斗争保护过他但力不从心的领导的一封长信,便可清楚地看到傅雷已经感觉到这独特的「凛冽」的气温,不啻于几年以前,甚至更为肃杀;另外,他的身体每况愈下;傅雷觉得无论是他译文的生活还是他的健康情况都到了尽头,所以,他是在十分消沉的情绪下,迫不得已地写了这封信。





    信上说最近以来他已把巴尔扎克可以译成中文的都译了,剩余的一些与「国情及读者需要多有抵触」,他担心读者不能用马列主义来分析批判而「中毒」,且在「文化革命形势之下顾虑又愈多」。





    傅雷为了能养活自己和他的妻子,甚至宁肯退让--按照出版社的选题翻译,可是他哀伤他的身体「未老先衰,脑力迟钝,日甚一日,不仅工作质量日感不满,进度亦只及十年前三分之一。再加印数稿酬废止,收入骤减」,他说即使印数稿费不取消,以他那时的身体精神状况都难以维持生活。为此,他说:于一九六四年底业已向中央报告过了--可是近一年的时间过去了,他没有得到回音。





    傅雷知道他周围的人都以为他们家的生活总归比别人好,因为有一个在国外出了名的儿子,因此傅雷不得不在信中写道,「将来必要时,国外小儿傅聪固然还能维持雷一部分生活,但从各方面考虑。觉得亦有不妥之处。」傅雷这句话表面含混,可是了解他的人都会明白,傅雷决不会靠儿子来养活--这不仅是他的自尊,更多的是傅雷的个性,他不会在命运的面前低头,至少不会在那一年:他过去为了「清白」,拒绝从国家领取工薪。几十年都是靠稿费生活,现在他的身体有了问题,他不希望他的孩子认为他过去是太逞强了。





    最后,在信的末尾,傅雷简直是在恳求:他企盼能从政府方面得到一些钱治疗疾病与维持他的生计,「因念吾公(那位领导)历年关怀、爱护备至,故敢据实上达。……想吾公及各方领导必有妥善办法赐予协助……」





    这么一个硬汉子自己挺过来几十年,当下也不得不软下来讨饭吃了。这是一九六五年十月的事。





    作为傅雷,从一九六六年的春天,他就嗅到了「山雨欲来风满楼」的肃杀气。但是他与绝大多数中国人一样,没有料到这场运动会以山崩海啸的暴力方式压向每一个角落,几乎没有一个人可以幸兔。





    在那个沉闷、恐怖的夏天的某一晚上,傅雷的老朋友周煦良来看他。傅雷对他说:「如果再来一次一九五七年那样的情况,我是不准备再活的。」





    一九六六年八月三十日下午。先是来了一批地区房屋管理局的人,搜查了半天,直到七点多方离开。夜里十一点,傅雷听到了砸门的声音,朱梅馥要去开,傅雷挡住了她。等傅雷把门打开,红卫兵携带着一股难闻的血腥味儿与汗味儿拥了进来。





    通过手电筒闪烁的光柱,傅雷认得,他们是上海音乐学院的人。





    来的红卫兵并不想跟傅雷说什么,他们是来搜查一份什么「上海音乐学院钢琴教师藏匿在傅雷家的『证据』」的:红卫兵怀疑音乐学院的一位钢琴教师把她的东西「转移」到了傅雷家--按道理,傅雷一向没有工作的单位,没有一个单位的红卫兵与他有直接的关系。其实他们来抄家的真实目的是因为傅雷有名;不仅如此,还听说傅雷过着「资产阶级的生活方式」;什么样的生活方式是「资产阶级式」的呢?按当时的看法:傅雷抽烟斗是,喝咖啡是,还有使用西餐用具也是,更无需说他还居然有那么多银光闪闪的餐刀--他是不是想用这些刀子去杀革命家?杀革命的小将红卫兵?傅雷还有钢琴!只有那些有闲情逸致的资产阶级才弹钢琴!





    1934年傅雷夫妇为庆祝傅聪出世合影留念。



    傅雷有海外关系,他在资本主义的法国住了那么多年,他还与外国人通信!他是不是一个外国的间谍呢?



    他们先把屋子查看了一遍。几个红卫兵还诡秘地笑了一笑,然后就把事先带来的几把铁(左金右欣)与镐头亮了出来。傅雷并不明白他们要做什么,所以他把眼睛往上抬了抬,一副惶惑的表情。





    红卫兵冲到了院子里,开始挖地,一边挖一边唱着他们那火辣辣的战歌:





    「拿起笔做刀枪,刀山火海我敢上……阶级敌人不投降,我就叫他见阎王!」





    眼看着不大的院子,都让他们拿(左金右欣)翻了个遍,傅雷始终不知他们在找什么。红卫兵越是挖不到他们想要的东西,越是疯狂地挖。傅雷和朱梅馥不敢问他们想要什么,可是他们却万般心疼地看着这些学生把满园的花木破坏了,两小时以后,这些满头大汗的红卫兵除了愤恨以外,惟一能做的事就是将每一簇尚存的花用他们的大靴子碾碎。





    接下来,他们向傅雷咆哮着:「你们把外国钱藏在哪儿了?」





    傅雷听到这儿,松下一口气,答道:「我们没有外国钱,就是有也不必藏。」





    于是他们翻箱倒柜,最后,终于发现了可以作为他「里通外国」的证据:傅雷的家信。红卫兵们如获至宝,开始一封一封地大声地读了出来。





    「『……屋内要些图片,只能拣几张印刷品。北京风沙大,没有玻璃框子,好一些的东西不能挂;黄宾翁的作品,小幅的也有,尽可给你,只是不装框不行。好在你此次留京时间不长。马虎一下再说。』……」



    念信的红卫兵听到了一声响--傅雷挨了站在他旁边一个眉清目秀的女红卫兵的一个耳光:「傅雷!你竟然攻击我们伟大领袖毛主席居住的地方--红太阳升起来的地方『风沙大』?怎么,即使是风沙大就不革命了?风沙大太阳就升不起来了?风沙大就不能挂毛主席的像了?风沙大能挂那个大黑画家黄宾虹的像而不挂红太阳的像!」





    「啪、啪」又是两下。





    「打倒傅雷!打倒右派分子傅雷!」





    「不,我不是右派分子,他们纠正了。」傅雷说。





    「他们是谁?他们是党内走资本主义的当权派!」





    接着红卫兵点出了几个上海文化局和中央文化部的领导的名字。





    「这些牛鬼蛇神当然要为你翻案,你们是一丘之貉嘛!」





    傅雷失语了。「傅雷不投降就叫他灭亡!」





    红卫兵个个都很激动。有的甚至流下了眼泪。





    「好,革命的同学们,红卫兵小将们,你们再听听这封一九五五年十二月二十七号的一封反革命黑信:「『以音乐而论,我觉得你的协奏曲非常含蓄……』废话!」一个戴着一副小眼镜儿的女红卫兵在念,傅雷认得她是钢琴系的学生,她一边念一边批判,「资产阶级的孝子贤孙当然会弹资产阶级的曲子!你们听,」我觉得你的协奏曲非常含蓄,绝无罗宾斯但那种伤感情调,你的情感都是内在的。第一乐章的技巧不尽完整,结尾部分似乎很明显有些毛病。第二乐章细腻之极。tone(音色)是delicate(精致)之极。最后一章非常brilliant(美妙),摇篮曲比给奖音乐会上好得多,mood(情感)也不同,更安静。幻想曲全部改变了:开头的引子,好极,沉着,庄严,贝多芬气息很重。中间那段slow(慢板)的singing part(如歌的部分),以前你弹得很tragic(悲)的,很sad(伤感)的,现在是一种惆怅的情调。整个曲子像一座巍峨的建筑,给人以厚重、扎实、条理分明、波涛汹涌而意志很热忱的感觉……』」





    这个钢琴系的红卫兵还没念完,手里的信就被一高个子的人抢过去,嘴里骂道:「你他妈批判呢还是散毒呢?!」说完了向傅雷的胃部打了一拳,傅雷弯下了腰。





    傅雷的心在颤抖,他并不顾及自己的疼痛,而是怕那个学生把信撕毁,所以抬起眼角看。他看到那个刚才念信的女红卫兵故意躲开了他的眼睛,然后从他的眼前走过去,走到那个高个子的前头小心地把那封信从那人的手里抽了回来,继而又大惑不解地看了看傅雷。最后她把信放回了原来的地方,又坐下了。





    以后傅雷不断地挨着打--他把妻子护在自己的身后。这个时候他的书信被一封封地抽出来,并被红卫兵用他们的嘶哑的嗓音当众宣读--傅雷万万没想到他的「书信集」竟以这般狂风暴雨般的形式「出版」了。





    「好,听听这封。」傅雷看见又是钢琴系的那个女学生在喊叫了。「这是傅雷--这个反动学术权威在写我们伟大的领袖毛主席!」





    听 到她这么一说,几十个红卫兵都静下来了:有几个已经准备好了他们手中的皮带,他们把皮带大金属扣的部分移向中间--这样金属就可以直接接触被打入的皮肉,他们试验过,重重的一皮带下去,如果是击在头部的太阳穴处,能把那个人当场打昏过去。





    所有的红卫兵都在等待,只要有一点儿--哪怕是含沙射影地攻击毛主席,眼前这个戴眼镜儿的老人就非死即残了。





    「快念!快念!」



    「『你是波兰的朋友,波兰的儿子』……」这是傅聪在比赛得奖后的一封信,傅雷知道。





    「好你这个叛国犯的父亲!波兰也是修正主义,苏联的帮凶!」傅雷的两耳轰了两下,这是那个高个子打的,傅雷开始听不清他们说什么了。





    「……把波兰音乐界给你的鼓励与启发带回到祖国来,在中国播一些真正对波兰友好的种子……」





    傅雷的头在发昏,耳鸣得厉害,突然他像是听到了儿子的钢琴声,那是贝多芬;也像是看到了克利斯朵夫--「他的灵魂赛似一座山:他取着所有的山道走去;有的是浓荫掩蔽,迂回曲折的;有的是当着烈日,陡峭险峻的;结果却都走向高踞山巅的神明。爱、憎,意志、舍弃,人类一切的力量兴奋到极点后,已和不朽的神明接近了,交融了。」





    1979年4月26日,傅聪、傅敏参加父母的追悼会。



    傅雷逐渐萎缩下去的神志像是被一股火光点燃了。他忽然又可以听见了,他听到那个女红卫兵在念,「……波兰的知识分子彷惶,你不必彷惶。伟大的毛主席远远地发出万丈光芒,照着你的前路,你得不辜负他老人家的领导才好……」





    傅雷看见全体红卫兵都愣住了。随后,一个很长时间的寂静--在傅雷感觉如同音乐中几个小节的休止。红卫兵没有找到音乐学院那个教师的「黑材料」,而本以为是里通外国的书信中竟然出现了那么一封他们连做梦都想不到的信,他们像是一下子就失去了兴趣。傅雷看见红卫兵们嘀咕了一会儿,然后如来他们家的时候一样一窝蜂地撤了出去。他当然看见了那个钢琴系的女孩子最后离开时的一瞥,他全懂了--即使是红卫兵,依旧是「心灵的人」。



    劫难并没有过去,第二天一早红卫兵随便找了借口又来了,这次换了一些人。他们一共把傅雷夫妻俩折磨了三夜四天。



    是什么样的原因导致了这般全国性的、全民族的疯狂呢?我们的中国感染了一种什么病毒呢?



    傅雷想起罗曼.罗兰说的关于每一代的人都得有一种美妙的理想让他们疯魔的话:即使青年中最自私的一批也有一股洋溢的生命力,充沛的元气,不愿意毫无作为;他们想法儿要把它消耗在一件行动上面,或者消耗在一宗理论上。一个人年轻的时候需要有个幻象,觉得自己参与着人间伟大的活动,在那里革新世界。他的感官会跟着宇宙间所有的气息而震动,觉得那么自由,那么轻松!他还没有家室之累,一无所有,一无所惧。因为一无所有,所以能非常慷慨地舍弃一切。妙的是能爱,能憎,以为空想一番,呐喊几声,就改造了世界,壮观了一世。



    在此刻,傅雷觉得罗曼.罗兰说得对,可是不够了!他眼前的青年是要把他们青春的力量不单消耗在打、砸、抢和洗劫家庭的行动上,也消耗在瘟疫般滥用理论上。



    「一个人年轻的时候需要有个幻象」,四十多年前傅雷的幻象与当下的青年人相反,那幻象恰恰是个虚无的巨人--就是说:是一尊怀疑一切的神,这个神在主宰着他。他向一切已存的理论、理想、主义挑战!现代的人比起他来贫乏得多--这位傅雷在忍受折磨的时候他的嘴角一边淌血一边流露出胜利者的微笑,这更激得那帮红卫兵给他愈多的苦吃。





    傅雷像是一个失去了一条腿的战胜者,因为他的归宿是早已设计好的,一切都是预想之中的:包括这几天的情况和将要走去的路。





    朱梅馥本来微微浮肿的脸上经过这几十个小时无分昼夜的红卫兵的淫威发着黄晕,她的眼睛凹了下去;她想收拾收拾房间,被傅雷拦住了。他的手在她的肩上摩挲着,他不知她懂不懂他想说什么。



    朱梅馥不去看他,拨开他的手,然后打扫屋子。





    他们谁也不开口,朱梅馥一间接着一同地清理着,试着把每一样归位;她记得傅雷有时候批评她拿了东西不放回原处,再找起来就不方便。这回她是极仔细地归位,可是有很多东西已经归不了位了,它们被砸碎、被剪断、被涂抹、被弄坏。其中有一些是他们夫妻心爱的纪念品,一些是傅聪、傅敏小时候的玩具。她心痛了、像有一把尖锐的小刀剜她的肉。



    朱梅馥捂住嘴,她怕哭出声。可是泪水一下冒了出来,随着她再也控制不住了,她跪在了地板上,鸣咽了起来。





    傅雷走进来,把她搂在自己的怀里。





    「梅馥……」





    「老傅……」朱梅馥偎在傅雷的胸口。





    「梅馥……」傅雷欲言又止。





    朱梅馥用两个指头温柔地封住了傅雷的口。





    「我全懂。」她说。





    「我对不起你,对不起孩子们!」傅雷几乎连不成句。





    「老傅,我们不是说好了吗--要走就一起走。这个世界除了你和孩子们,没有什么好留恋的。」





    「不,孩子们需要你。我一个人走吧,我在那边等你。等敏结了婚他们会有孩子,你到北京去过吧。我只会给孩子们增加负担。」傅雷说。



    「不,要走就一起。生既不能俱来,死只求同去,我的主意已定,你也不必劝了。要不,你也不走。」朱梅馥道。





    傅雷不再说什么,他可怜自己的妻子,因为死亡是他选择的,这是他多年来反复想过的,甚至他有时崇拜自己的勇气,为设想的死亡而大受感动。可是对妻子呢?她不会、也不可能像他这样想,她只是爱他,把他看得比她自己的生命更重要。她「走」完全是为了不使他孤独……傅雷觉得鼻翼边湿湿的,他用手抹了一下。





    --女人是很不幸福的。做一个女人真难,比做一个男人难多了……男人们可以沉溺于一件精神的热情或一件物质的活动里面,男人使自己变成残废,他们反觉幸福……男人只有一个灵魂,而女人健全得多,女人有好几个灵魂,因为她们心理健康,所以她们才痛苦……



    晚上。傅雷已经写好了一封信,朱梅馥清理了一些他们身后的事情。





    时钟在滴答滴答地走着。





    傅雷把毒药拿在手里,朱梅馥给他准备好一杯温水,然后坐在他的身边。





    傅雷夫妇死后被火化,可是在那一段时间,他们的骨灰无人敢认领。多亏一位素不相识的、曾经是热爱傅雷译文的文学女青年--冒充是傅家的亲戚,同时也真的找到了一位傅雷的亲戚,他们一起去认领了,然后把他们夫妇安放在了墓地;又有一位善心的守墓人将其做了记号,最后才不至于丢失。       27315希望对你有帮助!
    09-07-21 历史 匿名
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  • 川教版七年级下册历史复习提纲下学期川教版 

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    09-07-21 历史 匿名
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  • 对民间信仰的认识 

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    China mainly refers to popular folk belief of God faith. Traditional beliefs of his gods and the gods of various religions repeated screening, eliminated, combined, constitute a mess of supernatural belief systems. Do not ask the gods came from various sources, and Wang Ling on the incense. Clearly reflects the diversity of belief and secular utilitarian.





    Nature of God



    The so-called natural God, referring to the personification of natural phenomena after being upgraded to God. Folk beliefs in China there are many natural God, they are introduced here in ancient China that affect relatively few natural God.



    金阙Haotian, Jade s big, mysterious high-dome of God. Taoism is the highest God元始s, but in the folk beliefs of the status of the Jade元始s far more than to become the gods to rule the world the supremacy of God, thus the original god of Taoism gradually were relegated to the highest臣下Jade.



    Queen Mother is also the worship of the most widely secular worship of God. Also known as Queen Mother of the West Queen Mother, mother Yao Chi Kim. Enshrines many people because of the legend of the impact of Queen Mother of the West. For example, the legend of the Queen Mother was a Lady雍容华贵, July 7 a year, she sent four peach Emperor, Emperor after eating, feel good, want to take the nuclear species. Queen Mother said that this ancient knot a peach fruit species of the world can not live. And legends say that Hou Yi had obtained the Queen Mother of the West peach, it is the medicine of immortality longevity was Chang'e a steal, or on the moon. All these legends Queen Mother makes people more faith that the life that she could bless Tim.



    Folk beliefs in the Shenlong mine poll body, long beaked bird, chicken feet, back there翅翼, hand-held hammer vertebra. Mine evolved from worship of the worship of the Lightning is also a Chinese folk belief, a major feature of Sky. Chinese folk beliefs like marriage to the gods, therefore, in folk belief, the Raytheon dependencies associated with the lightning of God, there is Leigong Dianmu.



    东岳大帝is the god of Mount Tai, is an important Taoist mountain. Dongyue but God is regarded as the Secretary of the main offerings, Mount Tai has become a ghost of the House rule. This is Why? Ago in the Qin and Han Dynasty, China did not have the concept of heaven to hell, only to claim their lives. Since the Han Dynasty, people believe that after death魂归Taishan, Taishan became Ghost House rule. Became head of the dead东岳大帝18 layers of life and death hell and the world of the dead king as high or low. After the Tang and Song dynasties, and Buddhism东岳大帝hell Netherworld Taoism, along with folklore, the formation of the Chinese folk belief in the underworld of hell. 6 Buddhist reincarnation in hell, and its rulers, that is, the king of the dead, that is, Hades. During the Tang dynasty there is the ten hell. In Taoism there are the king of the dead, called Feng are the Great, is the world's cases of spirits. Feng are referring to the northern shore of the Yangtze River in eastern Sichuan, Feng are now called Fengdu. Fengdu City Wing-ping both the Northeast Mountains, that is, China You are well-known is the rule阎王爷Taoist ghost of the Netherworld. According to "NABI Kingdoms", the General Shang Huang东岳大帝is Feihu,姜子牙death was first called Five Sacred Mountains, 18 re-charge of the dead to hell. Pucheng County in Shanxi Province is a typical Mount Dongyue Temple Fair, all built in the ground, a complete layer of hell 18. The top layer is Feihu东岳大帝yellow, followed by the ten Yama, six Cao Magistrate, all angry圆睁, lifelike form. Hell there are 120 in冤鬼endure刀山, milling, cut out eyes, cutting off the tongue, heart post-mortem, sawing, fried, such as all forms of torture, in Chinese mythology represents the truth of hell.东岳大帝this time, with the original God of Mount Tai, is completely not the same thing as the.



    Occupational God



    Folk beliefs in a larger portion of the industry also includes the functions of God's worship, pay attention to old customs of great respect for teachers. Worship ancestral tablets in their homes, families are described as "Heaven, earth, emperor, parent and teacher" or "heaven and earth and the People First Division", in which "the teacher" as one of five. Various industries throughout the country spread through the ages have worshiped "祖师爷" the customs, the more common are:



    Agriculture. Worship God and Ceres soil. The ancestor of the Zhou Dynasty were abandoned, also known as后稷, in Yao, Shun was closed to do during the agricultural officer, Mr Christians to cultivate millet, so future generations respect for the founder of agriculture, and social unity of God, called the Land of God, Murano between every 35 years on the Agrocybe street has a small矮屋-土地庙, Anhui southwest area known as the "Temple worship agency" have the statue dedicated to the land laws. The 20th century to the mid-60s, the土地庙were removed; and the restoration of 90's.



    Tailoring industry. Xuanyuan enshrined's (the Yellow Emperor). "Historical Records", said the Yellow Emperor: "姬姓, No. Xuanyuan's, there熊氏." Thie-Tzuen after Chinese civilization as "初祖humanities." Rumors have been taught the Yellow Emperor by the people to wear with bone needles sewing thread made of animal skin clothes and leaves. It was respect for the founder sewing industry.



    Sericultural. Lei enshrined ancestors (also for tired progenitor). She is a legend of the Yellow Emperor's wife, had Christians rule silk sericulture, silkworm later deemed to be of the Northern Zhou Dynasty God.



    Wine industry. Where brewing, pubs, restaurants are enshrined as the founder Dukang. Dukang that Shaukang for the summer of the fifth generation of the monarchy. "Shuo Wen Jie Zi" as "ancient箕帚early Shaukang, kaoliang liquor." Also rumors have禹帝fate "Miriam Di brewery" in some places also Miriam Di respect for the founder of the Wine Industry.



    Mason wood. With respect for the founder Luban. That they are indeed the history of people's public transportation, people like (take a homonym for the word "class"), the Spring and Autumn when the Lu people, it said Luban, life created a ladder, stone, wood and wooden tools such as Fei Wu, inventors at the time outstanding.



    Rail industry. Blacksmith, coppersmith, silversmith and the metalworking industry have respect for the founder Taishang Senior. "Communication with the I" said: "Taishang Senior, Lee of the ears, the word伯阳, a重耳; born white first, so No. I; ears there are three missing, and its old Dan." I have been casting gossip legend Furnace (later known as the "Laojun furnace") to longevity丹药refining.



    Education. Respect for the great sage and teacher of Confucius, Jesus Christ师表. Old scholars, students, school children together at home, Chiang Kai-shek, school, county school, government school, the University dedicated to Confucius in the main hall tablets. Hill of Confucius, Confucius words, when the Spring and Autumn Lu ap corner (now the city of Qufu in Shandong Province) who is committed to education and his later years writing legislation that he had delegated teaching known as "disciples three dry, sage 70."



    商业. Memorial tablets dedicated to the God of Wealth. Taoism from "赵公Marshal" for the God of Wealth, and its concentration should be as black-faced, black tiger seat;姓赵passed its people, its Gongming, Qin attained in Zhongnanshan, titles as "being a玄坛Marshal." Fan Li also respect for the business founder. Fan Li,中国民间信仰主要指俗神信仰。他把传统信仰的神灵和各种宗教的神灵进行反复筛选、淘汰、组合,构成一个杂乱的神灵信仰体系。不问各路神灵的出身来历,有灵就香火旺。鲜明地反映了中国世俗信仰的多元性和功利性。


      自然神

     所谓自然神,指的是自然现象被人格化之后升格为神。在中国民间信仰中有许多自然神, 们这里主要介绍在中国古代比较有影响的几个自然神。

     昊天金阙,玉皇大天尊,玄穹高上帝。道教的最高神本来是元始天尊,但在民间信仰中玉皇大帝的地位远超过了元始天尊,成为统辖天下众神的至上神,以致使原有的道教最高天神逐渐都退居玉皇大帝臣下。

     王母娘娘的崇拜也是中国最为广泛的世俗神崇拜。王母娘娘又俗称西王母,瑶池金母。民间的祀奉又多因西王母传说的影响。比如,传说王母娘娘是一位雍容华贵的夫人,有一年七月七日,她把四颗蟠桃送给汉武帝,汉武帝吃了之后,觉得很好,想把核拿去种。王母娘娘说,这种蟠桃三千年结一次果,人间是无法种活的。又有传说讲,后羿曾向西王母求得蟠桃,那是长生不死之药,被嫦娥偷吃了,升上月宫。这种种传说使得民间更加信仰王母娘娘,认为她能够赐福添寿。

     民间信仰中的雷神龙身人头,长着鸟喙、鸡爪,背有翅翼,手持椎槌。由雷崇拜发展而来的对闪电的崇拜也是中国民间信仰天象的一大特色。中国民间信仰喜欢为神灵联姻,因此,在民间信仰中,雷神与闪电神相依相伴,有雷公电母的说法。

     东岳大帝是泰山之神,是道教中的重要山神。但后来东岳神却被视为冥司之主,泰山也成了治鬼之府。这是为何呢?在秦汉以前,中国没有天堂地狱的概念,只有赴黄泉的说法。自汉代以后,人们认为人死后魂归泰山,泰山因而成了治鬼之府。东岳大帝也成了主管幽冥十八层地狱及世人生死贵贱的幽冥之王。唐宋之后,东岳大帝和佛教的地狱,道教的阴曹地府,再加上民间传说,形成了中国民间信仰中的阴间地狱。佛教的六道轮回中有地狱,它的统治者,即幽冥之王,就是阎王。唐朝时有十殿阎罗的说法。在道教中也有幽冥之王,叫酆都大帝,是天下鬼神之宗。酆都指的是四川东部长江北岸的酆都,现在叫做丰都。丰都城东北有座平都山,那就是中国著名的幽都,是道教中的阎王爷治鬼的阴曹地府。据《封神演义》讲,东岳大帝是商代大将黄飞虎,死后被姜子牙封为五岳之首,执掌幽冥十八重地狱。山西蒲城县柏山有一座典型的东岳庙,全部建在地下,有完整的十八层地狱。最上一层是东岳大帝黄飞虎,其次是十殿阎罗、六曹判官,各个怒目圆睁,形态逼真。地狱里还有120个冤鬼在忍受着刀山、碾磨、剜眼、割舌、剖心、锯切、油煎等各种酷刑,再现了中国神话中的地狱真相。这时候的东岳大帝,与最初的泰山神,已完全不是一回事了。

       职业神

     在民间信仰中还包括较大一部分行业职能神的崇拜,旧俗极具讲究尊师重道。民家供奉祖宗牌位,正户题名为“天地君亲师”或称“天地国亲师”,其中“师道”列为五尊之一.  国各地各行业千古流传,均有供奉“祖师爷”的习俗,较常见有:

     农业。奉祀土神和谷神。周代的始祖名弃,又名后稷,在尧、舜时期被封做农官,教民耕种稷麦,故后世农业尊其为祖师,并与社神合一,称为土地神,村野之间,每隔三五里的田头路边就建有一座小矮屋——土地庙,皖西南一带称之为“社祀庙”,各有土地公婆的神像供奉。至20世纪60年代中期后,各土地庙均被拆除;90年代又有所恢复。

     裁缝业。尊奉轩辕氏(黄帝)。《史记》称黄帝:“姬姓,号轩辕氏、有熊氏”。后世尊其为中华文明的“人文初祖”。因传言黄帝曾教民众用骨针穿麻线缝树叶和兽皮做衣。故被缝纫业尊为祖师。

     蚕丝业。尊奉嫘祖(又作累祖)。传说她是黄帝的妻子,曾教民养蚕治丝,北周以后被视为蚕神。

     酿酒业。凡酒坊、酒馆、酒家均尊奉杜康为祖师。杜康即少康,为夏代的第五任君主。《说文解字》称其为“古者少康初作箕帚、秫酒”。又传言禹帝曾命“仪狄造酒”,有的地方亦尊仪狄为酒业的祖师。

     竹木泥瓦匠。同尊鲁班为祖师。历史上确有其人,氏公输,名般(取同音字为“班”),春秋时鲁国人,故称鲁班,生平创造过云梯、石磨、木作工具及木制飞乌等,为当时杰出的发明家。

     铁业。铁匠、铜匠、银匠与冶铸业均尊太上老君为祖师。《老子内传》称:“太上老君,姓李名耳,字伯阳,一名重耳;生而白首,故号老子;耳有三漏,又号老聃。”传说老子曾铸造八卦炉(后人称为“老君炉”)炼制丹药以求长生。

     教育。尊孔子为至圣先师、万世师表。旧时书生、学子、学童在家中正堂,私塾、县学、府学、大学均在正厅供奉孔子牌位。孔子名丘,字仲尼,春秋时鲁国陬邑(今山东省曲阜市)人,晚年致力于教育并著述立说,史称他曾授教“弟子三干,贤人七十”。

    商业。供奉财神牌位。道教奉“赵公元帅”为财神,其像黑面浓须,骑坐黑虎;相传其人姓赵,号公明,秦时得道于终南山,封号为“正一玄坛元帅”。商界又尊范蠡为祖师。范蠡,字少伯,楚国宛人(今河南南阳),曾协助越王勾践灭吴,功成后弃宫经商,游齐国称鸱夷子皮,在陶(今山东定陶)称陶朱公,经商曾“三致千金”均散济贫民,其商德极受后人崇敬。

     豆腐业。江淮大地奉淮南王刘安为祖师。其人为刘帮之孙,袭封淮南王,治寿春(今寿县),因“招致宾客方术之士数千人”,集编成《淮南子》一书,并在熬制丹药时,无意间用黄豆、盐卤做成了豆腐脑(即水豆腐),

     中医业。战国时医学家扁鹊创立望、闻、问、切“四诊”医术,后世即尊奉他为中医的祖师。扁鹊姓秦,名越人,河北任丘人。汉代医学家张仲景著《伤寒杂病论》,倡导辨证论治原则,被后世尊为“医圣”。民间医业尊华佗为祖师,华佗名甫,字天化,沛国谯(今毫州市)人,曾创制麻沸散(麻醉药)用于外科手术,故被尊称为“外科鼻祖”。唐代医学家孙思邈著《千金方》,被后世誉为“药王”。中草药制作及民间药铺药店则尊奉明代医药学家李时珍为祖师。李时珍字东璧,号濒湖,蕲州人(今湖北薪春人),著《本草纲目》传世。

     制笔与造纸业。传说秦朝名家蒙恬曾改良过毛笔,故被尊奉为制笔业的祖师。世传东汉蔡伦为造纸术的发明人,故民间纸槽作坊、纸业店铺均供奉“龙亭侯”朴像脾位,尊为祖师。蔡伦,东汉桂阳(今湖南郴州)人,官任尚方令,封龙亭侯。

     印染业。染坊店奉东晋葛洪为祖师。葛洪字雅川,自号抱朴子,丹阳句容(今属江苏)人,著《抱朴子》一书,曾在炼丹中提炼出各色染料,被后世应用来印染布帛、纸张。

     戏曲业。尊唐玄宗李隆基为祖师。因唐玄宗曾召集歌舞艺人与宫女在梨园学艺,并时常亲自执槌击鼓演奏配乐。因而,后世均称戏曲艺人为“梨园兄弟”。

     火腿业。尊宋朝宗泽为祖师。宗泽字汝霖,婺州义乌(今属浙江)人,为宋朝名将。相传他发明了火腿的制作方法,流传甚广。
     
     织布业。尊黄道婆为祖师。黄道婆为松江乌泥泾(今属上海市)人,少年时流落至崖州(今海南崖县),从黎族人学习了纺织技术。后回乡改革、推广轧花、纺车和织机技术,影响深远。

     评书业。尊明末杰出的说书艺人柳敬亭为祖师。评书古称评话,又称鼓书、板话。柳敬亭,本姓曹,通州(今江苏南通)人,被后人誉称为“柳评书”。

     另外,流传数千年之久儒、佛、道三教,又分别尊奉孔子、释迦牟尼和老子为祖师,在民间影响也极其深远。

     财神崇拜也是最普遍的世俗神信仰之一。明代传说招财进宝利市之神是赵公元帅,即赵公明。此神下属有四神,即招宝天尊曹升、纳珍天尊曹宝、招财使者陈九公、利市仙官姚少司。这班神灵都是专司钱财珍宝的神,以赵公明为主财大神。明清两代财神庙香火极盛。商贾百姓年年都要迎祭财神。财神的形象为黑面多须,手执钢鞭,跨下黑虎,一副武将装束。因此,在民间又俗称为"武财神"在财神生日到来的前一天晚上,各家置办酒席,为财神贺辰。初五接财神,赵公元帅最受尊拜。许多商店、住宅都供奉他的木版印刷神像,神像面似锅底,手执钢鞭,身骑黑虎,极其威武。正月初五,各商店开市,一大早就敲锣打鼓放爆竹,迎接财神。信奉关帝圣君的商家,在正月初五要为关公供上牲醴,鸣放爆竹,烧金纸膜拜,求关圣帝君保佑一年财运亨通。 为满足人们升官发财、多子多福、福寿延年的需求,后来又相继出现众多的文官门神和祈福门神。祈福门神并非门户的保护者,只是为祈福而用,中心人物为赐福天官。也有刘海戏金蟾,招财童子小财神。供奉、张贴者的家庭多为商界人物,希望从祈福门神那儿得到功名利禄。经历代变迁,门神已成为多功能的保护神,具有驱邪魔、卫家宅、保平安、助功利、降吉祥等功能,成为最受欢迎的民间俗神之一,历久不衰,至今仍盛。如果按照起源来划分,那么财神可以归为 们下面所要介绍的人神一类,而门神属于自然神, 们按其功能将这些神归入职业神一类。也有些学者另辟一类,将福、禄、寿、喜、财、门神等归入社会神。

      人神

     中国民间不但信仰神,也相信鬼。民间之所以相信人死后会变成神或鬼,是因为人们相信人死后灵魂不灭。秦汉以前,中国没有天堂地狱的概念,人们对鬼神的去向不十分明确,只是模糊地认为神住在天上,鬼游荡在世间,或入黄泉。所以,中国民间不仅重视祭祀自己的列祖列宗,祭祀黄帝、炎帝,还要为许多为百姓做事的地方官立祠祭祀,让他们死后灵魂有个归宿。但这种祭祀还算不上俗神崇拜。将英雄作为神来祭拜的,在中国民间并不多,主要是岳飞和关羽。对岳飞的神化自南宋就开始了,现在杭州西湖边上的岳王庙,就是南宋嘉定年间修建的。不过中国民间信仰中最普遍的人神是关羽,关羽因其忠义,被历代皇帝追谥为
    5回答
  • 萨拉龙加真实历史  

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    Walter defend Sarajevo "in the prototype of the legendary hero Walter is Marshal Josip Broz Tito (1892-1980), Chairman of the Yugoslav Communist League, founder of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, co-founder of the Non-Aligned Movement 1.



    Also, the Internet, said Walter was indeed in the history of its people. He has served as a prefectural Party committee secretary of SADC in Sarajevo, the guerrilla chief, in 1945, when the Soviet Red Army guns roar in the distance when the people of Sarajevo, led by his positive way to start care and care for mine and plant care movement, when the ex City of Devils announced hang a white flag to surrender, the power plant is in front of the command of the Sarajevo Walter was hit by a stray bullet, the glorious sacrifice, do not see the red flag flying in a free land that day. Was 26 years old.瓦尔特保卫萨拉热窝》中传奇英雄瓦尔特的原型是约瑟普·布罗兹·铁托元帅(1892-1980),南斯拉夫共产主义者联盟主席,南斯拉夫社会主义联邦共和国缔造者,不结盟运动创始人之一。

    另,网上有人说瓦尔特在历史上确有其人。他曾担任过萨拉热窝南共地委书记、游击队长,1945年,当苏联红军的炮声在远处轰鸣时,萨拉热窝人民在他的带领下积极展开护路、护矿和护厂运动,当守城的鬼子挂起白旗宣布投降时,正在萨拉热窝发电厂门口指挥的瓦尔特被一颗流弹击中,光荣牺牲,没有看到红旗飘扬在自由土地上的那一天。年仅26岁。
    09-07-20 历史 匿名
    4回答
  • 新中国取得的历史性成就说明了什麽 

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    (A) the establishment of New China to the present, the Chinese people along the socialist road, after half a century of hard work has made great achievements attracting worldwide attention.



        First, from the fight for economic independence to build a socialist modernized country.



        More than 50 years, the leadership of the Communist Party of China National People's tough economy, so that an extremely backward economy and culture of old China into a prosperous new socialist preliminary struggle, thrifty nation-building, in a basis of poverty and weakness on the establishment of independent and relatively complete China's industrial system and national. Since the Third Plenary Session of the CPC, reform and opening up has entered a new era of modernization. In the Party's basic line of the primary stage of socialism under the guidance of socialism with Chinese characteristics strides the great cause of socialist market economy system preliminarily established, the country's comprehensive national strength and people's standard of living increases. In 2005, GDP reached 2.2 trillion U.S. dollars (world ranking rose to fourth place), per capita GDP of nearly 1700 U.S. dollars, in 1949 were 25.8 times and 25 times in 1978, 18.8 times and 18 times. The main industrial and agricultural output ranks the world.



        Secondly, to win political independence from the building of socialist democratic politics.



        More than 50 years, in establishing the working class people's democratic dictatorship led by the national system, to win political independence on the basis of people's congress system, the CPC-led multi-party cooperation and political consultation system, the system of regional ethnic autonomy a basic political system of socialism be established, to maintain and further improve. Of the Chinese nation to achieve an unprecedented solidarity and unity, development and expansion of the patriotic united front, national, religious and overseas Chinese affairs to flourish. Hong Kong and Macao to the motherland has enriched the "one country, two systems" theory and practice. Third Plenary Session of the PRC to achieve the great historic turning point, based on the continuous strengthening of socialist democracy, political reform steps and stages steady progress, and gradually formed the leadership of the CPC, the people are the masters , the rule of law a unified socialist state-owned machine-building the basic framework of democratic politics.



        Third, from the development of new democratic culture to the construction of socialist culture with Chinese characteristics.



    Socialist culture with Chinese characteristics is developed from the new democratic culture, a manifestation of the Chinese Communist Party in promoting construction of China's advanced culture and the same with the times. In building socialism with Chinese characteristics under the guidance of the principle of culture, a positive development toward modernization, the world, future-oriented, national, scientific and popular socialist culture, and to carry forward and cultivate the national spirit, and earnestly strengthen ideological and moral building, vigorously develop education and science, and actively develop cultural undertakings and cultural industries, and continue to deepen reform of the cultural system, in order to build a well-off society, to reinforce the provision of comprehensive national strength to support the flow of culture.



        Fourthly, to break the blockade from the all-round opening up.



        New China since its founding, the Western countries to break the blockade, development of economic and trade exchanges with all countries, in order to achieve domestic peace and the building of a favorable external conditions, have made unremitting efforts. 20th century 70s to the normalization of Sino-US relations as a breakthrough point, brought China and the establishment of diplomatic relations between Western countries climax for the implementation of opening-up strategy was to create a favorable international environment. After the Third Plenary Session of the CPC, the reform initiated by Deng Xiaoping at the same time, promote the formation of a new opening to the outside world situation. To promote economic development and improving people's lives is the central task facing the country. China strive for a peaceful international environment to develop itself through its own development to promote world peace and development has always been unswervingly follow the road of peaceful development, maintaining world peace and promoting the development of an important force in the world.



        Fifth, from the "millet plus rifles" to the progressive realization of the modernization of national defense.



        Modern history of China's humiliating history has taught the Chinese people to safeguard national dignity and sovereignty, we must have a strong national defense modernization. More than 50 years, the People's Liberation Army in China under the leadership of the Communist Party, and resolutely safeguard the motherland's territorial integrity and sovereignty, in the realization of the process of modernization of national defense, has been developed and the successful launch of the "two bombs and one satellite", such as a world-renowned成就. The new century, the People's Liberation Army and People's Armed Police Force and other armed forces around the "winning the war" and "degenerate" two major issues, in accordance with qualified politically and competent militarily, a fine style of work, strict discipline and the general requirements of the protection of powerful, from the Yan army, army to accelerate the revolution in military affairs with Chinese characteristics and preparations for military struggle, to strengthen the revolutionary armed forces, modernization and regularization, fewer but better troops with Chinese characteristics, follow the road to continue to forge ahead.



      (B) What these achievements?



        Since the founding of new China more than 50 years of history have shown that only socialism can save China, to the development of China, the Chinese Communist Party is leading the Chinese revolution, construction and reform the core of strength. Only under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, the socialist road with Chinese characteristics, to achieve the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.(一)从新中国成立到现在,中国人民沿着社会主义道路,经过半个世纪的艰苦奋斗,取得了举世瞩目的巨大成就。

      第一,从争取经济独立到建设社会主义现代化国家。

      50多年来,中国共产党领导全国人民艰苦经济体系,使经济文化极度落后的旧中国变成了一个初步繁荣昌盛的社会主义新奋斗,勤俭建国,在一穷二白的基础上建立了独立的、比较完整的工业体系和国民中国。中共十一届三中全会以来,进入了改革开放和现代化建设的新时期。在党的社会主义初级阶段基本路线的指引下,中国特色的社会主义伟大事业阔步前进,社会主义市场经济体制初步建立,国家的综合国力和人民的生活水平大幅度提高。2005年,国内生产总值达到2.2万亿美元(世界排名上升到第四位),人均国内生产总值将近1700美元,分别是1949年的25.8倍和25倍,是1978年的18.8倍和18倍。主要工农业产品产量跃居世界前列。

      第二,从赢得政治独立到建设社会主义民主政治。

      50多年来,在确立工人阶级领导的人民民主专政的国家制度、赢得政治独立的基础上,人民代表大会制度、中国共产党领导的多党合作政治协商制度、民族区域自治制度等社会主义基本政治制度得到确立、坚持和进一步完善。中华民族实现了空前的团结和统一,爱国统一战线发展壮大,民族、宗教和侨务工作蓬勃发展。香港和澳门回归祖国,丰富了“一国两制”的理论和实践。在中共十一届三中全会实现历史性伟大转折的基础上,社会主义民主政治建设不断加强,政治体制改革有步骤、分阶段地稳步推进,逐步形成了坚持中国共产党的领导、人民当家作主、依法治国有机统一的社会主义民主政治建设的基本框架。

      第三,从发展新民主主义文化到建设中国特色社会主义文化。

    中国特色社会主义文化是从新民主主义文化发展而来的,体现了中国共产党在推进中国先进文化建设方面的一脉相承而又与时俱进。在建设中国特色社会主义文化的方针指引下,积极发展面向现代化、面向世界、面向未来的,民族的、科学的、大众的社会主义文化,坚持弘扬和培育民族精神,切实加强思想道德建设,大力发展教育和科学事业,积极发展文化事业和文化产业,继续深化文化体制改革,为全面建设小康社会、全面增强综合国力提供着源源不断的文化支撑。

      第四,从打破封锁到全方位对外开放。

      新中国从成立之日起,就为打破西方国家的封锁、发展同各国的经济贸易往来、为国内和平建设取得良好的外部条件,作了不懈的努力。20世纪70年代,以中美关系正常化为突破口,带动了中国同西方国家的建交高潮,为后来实行对外开放战略创造了有利的国际环境。中共十一届三中全会后,邓小平在倡导改革的同时,推动对外开放形成了崭新的局面。推动经济发展、改善人民生活,是国家面临的中心任务。中国通过争取和平的国际环境来发展自己,又通过自身的发展来促进世界的和平与发展,始终坚定不移地走和平发展的道路,成为维护世界和平、促进世界发展的重要力量。

      第五,从“小米加步枪”到逐步实现国防现代化。

      近代以来中国屈辱的历史告诉中国人民,要维护国家的尊严和主权,就必须要有强大的现代化国防。50多年来,中国人民解放军在中国共产党的领导下,坚决捍卫祖国的领土完整和主权,在实现国防现代化的进程中,取得了自行研制和成功发射“两弹一星”等一个个举世瞩目的成就。进入新世纪,人民解放军和武装警察部队等人民武装力量,围绕“打得赢”和“不变质”两大课题,按照政治合格、军事过硬、作风优良、纪律严明、保障有力的总要求,从严治军,依法治军,加速推进中国特色军事变革和军事斗争准备,加强军队的革命化、现代化、正规化建设,沿着中国特色的精兵之路不断地开拓前进。

    (二)这些成就说明了什么?

      新中国成立以来50多年的历史昭示 们,只有社会主义才能救中国,才能发展中国,中国共产党是领导中国革命、建设、改革事业的核心力量。只有在中国共产党的领导下,走中国特色社会主义道路,才能实现中华民族的伟大复兴。
    09-07-20 历史 匿名
    3回答
  • 论邓小平理论的全球化视野及其在21世纪的历史地位  

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    On the Deng Xiaoping Theory and Globalization in the 21st century the historical status of



    Key words "world history" theory / Deng Xiaoping Theory / Globalization / historical status

    Body 【】

    To the mainstream of economic globalization, the globalization trend is evident in the fact, but it is not started today. In fact, the rise of capitalism, they began their journey, but in today's world of economic globalization and the trend is more prominent but greatly enhanced. Surprisingly, as early as age 40 in the 19th century, Marx's insight on its amazing the world took note of the historical development of economic globalization trend, a declaration of "economic globalization" era. In his "Communist Manifesto" stated that: "increasing the need for product sales, driven by the bourgeoisie in running all over the world. It must be set up everywhere, everywhere business networking everywhere. The bourgeoisie, as a result of the global market has opened up so that all countries production and consumption have become a world-wide. ... ... the past that local and national self-sufficiency and to close the door, and were of various nationalities in all aspects of mutual exchanges and mutual respect instead of relying on the. "[1] ( P245-255) focused on this point of view reflected in the "German Ideology" that he is the "world history" theory. In this theory, Marxism has a specific meaning to the "World History" concept analysis, characterization and revealed the "economic globalization" of the historical trend. Therefore, in the rolling wave of globalization today, an accurate grasp of Marx's "World History" theory, conscious use of this theory point of view, methods, and global perspective to analyze and solve problems, and its contemporary significance is particularly important.

    In response, Deng Xiaoping set us brilliant examples. He's building socialism with Chinese characteristics, not only blazed the Marxist theory of "world history" theory brilliant, but also to address the issue of China as the starting point for Marx's "World History" theory has given new characteristics of the times, to fill the theoretical some gaps, so the inheritance and development of Marx's "World History" theory, which also highlights the Deng Xiaoping Theory and the grand vision of globalization. Therefore, Marx set out Deng Xiaoping's "World History" theory of inheritance and development of our correct understanding of Deng Xiaoping Theory in the surging wave of economic globalization, the historical status of the 21st century, and unswervingly hold high the great banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the building of China characteristics, has important theoretical and practical significance.

    First, Deng Xiaoping Theory and Globalization: The Marx's "World History" theory of the inheritance and development of

    First, Deng Xiaoping, the modern world in a profound grasp of the historical characteristics of the times of opening to the outside world based on the theory, pointed out that in the economically backward based on the primary stage of socialism in the "World History" or "economic globalization," the background the only way for the modernization of the next, highlights the history of the world the theory of Marxism of contemporary significance, is Marx's "World History" theory and the reality of contemporary China and the characteristics of the times a product of the combination.

    Marx's theory of world history, "world history" is not a makeshift mechanical history, nor is it the beginning, and it is a development, changes in a certain stage in the history of the product, "as the world's history is the history of results. " [2] (P112) of its meaning, from the horizontal point of view, is to build a huge development in terms of productivity on the basis of the universal inter-ethnic contacts; from the vertical point of view, the former refers to the backward productive forces of capitalism, the basis of division of labor history can be divided in the narrow area in the development of the nation, it is impossible to form interaction of all ethnic groups, the pattern of interdependence, when the history of nations does not constitute a "world history"; only when the world has opened up a large-scale industrial markets commercial, traffic has been tremendous development in breaking the limit to create a natural barrier between the nation's productivity and the means of production, the "world history" can be formed. Such as Marx said: "all the activities of mutual influence in the development process more and more expanded, closed-door policy of all ethnic groups in the state of the original sound because of the growing mode of production, exchange, and therefore developed their own division of labor between the various ethnic groups and the elimination of a more complete history on the extent of the growing history of the world. "[1] (P51) In short, Marx said" the history of the world "refers to the development of productive forces in the world specific stage, all nationalities, all countries have adopted universal contacts entered a state of interdependence, since the formation of the world's overall history. It was formed in the era of capitalism. Its basic characteristics are: 1, open, that is, all nationalities, all full of mutual influence, mutual restraint, mutual infiltration into a complex world as the center of the world's people rely on the comprehensive. 2, mobility, resulting in a large-scale world market, the international consortium and the global cycle of material flow, capital flow, technology flow, personnel flow, etc.. Marx's "World History" concept, characterization, revealed it is "economic globalization" of the historical trend.

    The formation of the history of the world means that the formation of the world's productive forces, as well as the world's productive forces can use this. Therefore, Marx said: "The creation of a place of productivity, in particular, the invention, in the future development will be lost, depending on the extension of contacts. When the contact is limited to adjacent areas when each of the invention in each of places have to be a fresh start. "" Only in the nature of contacts with the world, and to large industrial base, the only nation involved in all competition, the preservation of living has been created only a guarantee of productivity. "[1 ] (P60-61) Therefore, the history of the world, "every single individual in order to shake off the limitations of a variety of ethnic and geographical limitations, and with the production of the world as a whole (also including the spirit of the production) linked to, and may have the strength to the use of such full-scale production around the world (all created by people). "[1] (P67-68)

    Marx's theory of world history shows that the above-mentioned point of view: in the era of world history, no country can not be self-sufficient, inward-looking development of high-speed cases, the national economy, on the "post-development" especially for the countries. Therefore, the opening to the outside world is economically backward countries the only way to prosperity, this is the history of the world Marxist theory of the logic behind the conclusions.

    In contemporary, with the development of productive forces,论邓小平理论的全球化视野及其在21世纪的历史地位

    【关 键 词】“世界历史”理论/邓小平理论/全球化视野/历史地位
    【 正 文 】
    以经济全球化为主流的全球化趋势在今天已是有目共睹的事实,但它决不是始于今天。实际上,在资本主义兴起之时,就开始了自己的历程,只不过当今世界经济全球化的现象更加突出及其趋势大大加强而已。令人惊讶的是,早在19世纪40年代,马克思就以其惊人的洞察力注意到世界经济全球化这一历史发展趋势,宣告了“经济全球化”时代的到来。他在《共产党宣言》中指出:“不断扩大产品销路的需要,驱使资产阶级奔走于全球各地。它必须到处落户,到处创业,到处建立联系。资产阶级,由于开拓了世界市场,使一切国家的生产和消费都成为世界性的了。……过去那种地方的和民族的自给自足和闭关自守状态,被各民族的各方面的互相往来和各方面的互相依赖所代替了。”[1](P245—255)这一观点集中地体现在《德意志意识形态》他所提出的“世界历史”理论中。在这一理论中,马克思以具有特定含义的“世界历史”概念分析、表征和揭示了“经济全球化”这一历史趋势。所以,在全球化浪潮滚滚而来的今天,准确地把握马克思的“世界历史”理论,自觉地运用这一理论的观点、方法和全球化视野去分析问题、解决问题,其当代意义就显得尤为重要。
    对此,邓小平为我们树立了光辉的榜样。他的建设有中国特色的社会主义理论不仅闪耀着马克思“世界历史”理论的光辉,而且以解决中国问题为出发点,给马克思的“世界历史”理论赋予了新的时代特征,填补了这一理论的一些空白,因而继承和发展了马克思的“世界历史”理论,由此也凸现了邓小平理论宏大的全球化视野。所以,阐明邓小平对马克思“世界历史”理论的继承和发展,对于我们正确认识邓小平理论在经济全球化浪潮汹涌澎湃的21世纪的历史地位,坚定不移地高举邓小平理论的伟大旗帜,建设好中国特色的社会主义,具有重要的理论意义和现实意义。
    一、邓小平理论的全球化视野:对马克思“世界历史”理论的继承和发展
    第一,邓小平在深刻把握当代世界历史时代特征的基础上提出的对外开放的理论,指出了在经济落后的基础上建立的初级阶段的社会主义在“世界历史”或“经济全球化”的背景下走向现代化的必由之路,凸现出马克思世界历史理论的当代意义,是马克思“世界历史”理论与当代中国实际和时代特征相结合的产物。
    马克思的世界历史理论认为,“世界历史”并不是各国历史的机械凑合,也不是一开始就有的,它是经过发展、转变而在历史的一定阶段才产生的,“作为世界史的历史是结果”。[2](P112)其涵义是,从横向上看,就是建立在生产力巨大发展基础上的各民族间的普遍交往;从纵向上看,就是指在前资本主义落后的生产力、分工的基础上,历史只能被分割在狭隘的民族地域中发展,不可能形成各民族相互交往、相互依赖的格局,这时各国的历史不足以构成“世界历史”;只有当大工业开辟了世界市场,使商业、交通得到巨大发展,创造出打破限制民族交往的自然隔阂的生产力和生产手段时,“世界历史”才能形成。如马克思所说:“各个相互影响的活动范围在这个发展进程中愈来愈扩大,各民族的原始闭关自守状态则由于日益完善的生产方式、交往以及因此自发地发展起来的各民族之间的分工而消灭得愈来愈彻底,历史就在愈来愈大的程度上成为全世界的历史。”[1](P51)简言之,马克思所说的“世界历史”,是指在世界生产力发展的特定阶段,各民族、各国家通过普遍交往,进入相互依存状态,形成世界整体化以来的历史。它形成于资本主义时代。其基本特征是:1、开放性,即各民族、各国家全面的相互影响、相互制约、相互渗透,世界成为一个以物为中心的人与人全面依赖的世界。2、流动性,产生了规模宏大的世界市场、国际联合体以及全球循环的物质流、资金流、技术流、人才流等。马克思的“世界历史”概念,表征、揭示的正是“经济全球化”这一历史趋势。
    世界历史的形成意味着世界生产力的形成以及人们可以利用这种世界生产力。所以,马克思说:“某一个地方创造出来的生产力,特别是发明,在往后的发展中是否会失传,取决于交往扩展的情况。当交往只限于毗邻地区的时候每一种发明在每一个地方都必须重新开始。”“只有在交往具有世界性质,并以大工业为基础的时候,只有在一切民族都卷入竞争的时候,保存住已创造出来的生产力才有了保障。”[1](P60-61)因此,在世界历史中,“各个单独的个人才能摆脱各种不同的民族局限和地域局限,而同整个世界的生产(也包括精神生产)发生联系,并且可能有力量来利用全球的这种全面生产(人们所创造的一切)。”[1](P67-68)
    马克思世界历史理论的上述观点表明:在世界历史时代,任何国家都不可能在自给自足、闭关自守的情况下高速地发展民族经济,对“后发展”的国家来说尤其是如此。所以,对外开放是经济落后的国家走向繁荣的必由之路,这是马克思世界历史理论所蕴含的逻辑结论。
    在当代,随着生产力的发展,高科技的开发和利用,各民族、各国家之间的交往日益增多,其层次不断地扩大。全面交往产生的结果是形成了规模更为宏大的世界市场、国际联合体以及信息、技术、资金、人才的跨国流动。这些,印证了马克思当年的预言:随着生产力的发展和交往的扩大,历史就在愈来愈大的程度上成为世界历史。另外,与马克思所处的时代不同,当代世界历史中并存着社会主义和资本主义两种不同的社会制度,是社会主义和资本主义共同发展的历史。
    在当代的世界历史中,社会主义中国如何求生存和发展?这是摆在我们面前的一个严峻的问题。邓小平认为:“中国长期处于停滞和落后状态的一个重要原因是闭关自守。”[3](P78)“现在任何国家要发达起来,闭关自守都不可能。”[3](P90)因此,邓小平在设计中国社会发展的目标和道路时,自觉地运用了马克思的世界历史理论的观点、方法和宽广的“全球化”视野,在对当代世界历史时代性特点的认识和把握的基础上,作出了和平和发展是当今世界两大主题的科学论断,提出中国要实现社会主义现代化就必须对外开放,自觉走进世界性或全球性交往的行列,因为“现在的世界是开放的世界”。[3](P64)邓小平对外开放理论的提出和实施对于巩固和发展中国的社会主义意义是极为重大的。这是因为,中国的社会主义是在半殖民地半封建的基础上建立起来的,虽然实现了资本主义“卡夫丁峡谷”的跨越,但没有经历发达的资本主义阶段,生产力较为落后,是邓小平所概括的“初级阶段的社会主义”。因此,处在社会主义初级阶段或不发达阶段的中国要发展生产力,就必须吸收和利用资本主义的先进的生产力,享用资本主义的一切有用的成果。只有对外开放,才能以人类的先进成果为自己的发展起点,以“跳跃”式的发展跨入现代化的行列。相反,闭关自守势必使一切都需要从头开始和单独进行,重复别人已经走过的老路,导致的将是停滞、落后和愚昧。正因为如此,邓小平告诫我们:“中国的发展离不开世界。”[3](P78)
    十一届三中全会以来,我国的对外开放有力地推动了经济的发展,加快了社会主义现代化的步伐。这充分证明了邓小平对外开放理论的正确性,证明了对外开放确是社会主义中国从落后走向繁荣的正确道路。同时,中国的实践也表明,邓小平对外开放的理论对于当代世界历史中的社会主义的发展具有普遍的指导作用。
    09-07-20 历史 匿名
    7回答
  • 如何看待西方列强入侵对近代中国的影响以香港为例  

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    A certain point of view, a modern history of China, which is lagging behind China's humiliating history of being beaten. Humiliating situation for this reason, the western capitalist powers on the one hand, China's aggression, on the other hand, the backwardness of China's social system. Western powers on China's aggression is one of the world capitalist development, the inevitable product of capitalist countries to open up a colony for the world an important part of hegemony. Powers of aggression against China and the characteristics of the changes in the way it is with the whole process of capitalist development are closely linked with the contradictions. Western powers of aggression against China have had a profound social impact, not only hinder the pace of modernization of China, at the same time to stimulate an objective of China's new relations of production rise. Can be the subject to attention from the two aspects: on the one hand, capitalism in the West's relations with foreign powers against China, on the one hand, the great powers of aggression against China and Chinese society at all levels to explore resistance, China's changes in the relationship between socio-economic development.

     The first phase: the Opium War to the Sino-Japanese War Sino-Japanese War (1840 ~ 1894). This stage, the Western powers against China is the main means of waging war, mainly through export of commodities, a major invasion of China, France and the United States the country is British and other Western industrialized countries, as well as Russia. During this period, countries such as Britain and France for the plundering of raw materials, develop new markets, Russia continued its policy of aggression against China, they are from the sea and land launched aggression against China, has launched the two Opium Wars and the Sino-French War, forced the Chinese signed the "Nanjing Treaty" and a series of unequal treaties, the loss of China's territorial sovereignty. Aggression by foreign powers in China has gradually become a semi-colonial semi-feudal society as dumping goods and predatory powers of the place of raw materials.

      second phase: Sino-Japanese War Sino-Japanese War to the end of the First World War (1894 ~ 1918). Invasion of China during this period the way the Western powers in the political tide on the first and then gradually started to carve up the implementation of the "China Zhi-Hua" policy; economy dominated by export of commodities to the export of capital-based transition. At that time, Western countries the main pattern of invasion is a common control, the United States an advantage to the Japanese during World War I temporarily dominate China. During this period, Britain France and the United States and other countries to further the development of capitalism, Russia embarked on the capitalist road. Then, the major capitalist countries began the transition to imperialism. They began to further external expansion, that is, collusion between them and scramble to the use of force and war caused by China's vast border areas of crisis, launched the Sino-Japanese War Sino-Japanese war, a war of aggression, such as Eight-Power Allied Forces invaded China. Them to large-scale exporter of capital to control the economic lifeline of China, to snatch the way mineral rights in China to provide political loans, a large-scale factories. They forcibly occupied leased territory, divided into spheres of influence, an attempt to carve up China, China as a colony changed. The U.S. "open door" policy put forward, marking the independence of the United States has been the policy of aggression against China, but also to some extent, upon the formation of the joint powers of the alliance in China. In the fight against the Boxer Rebellion, the imperialists changed the policy to divide up the implementation of the "China Zhi-Hua" strategy, first the Qing government to foster, nurture Yuan after the Revolution. During this period, the contradiction between imperialism increasingly sharp, and the three interference also Liao, the Russo-Japanese War, between the Government Hospital, Japan declared war on Germany and so is the embodiment of these contradictions.

      The third stage: a post-war to the end of World War II (1919 ~ 1945). Invasion of China by foreign powers during this period is mainly from the "China Zhi-hua," to the occupation of China. At that time, first major invasion of China by the joint powers dominated exclusively by the Japanese. I. After the war, Japan and the United States become a scramble for China's major rivals, the Washington Conference of China broke the hegemony of the situation in Japan, China returned to the domination of foreign powers together. Preliminary ruling Nationalist government, the United States invasion of China in safeguarding the rights and interests of the "open door" policy, condone the Japanese invasion of China; Japan to step up implementation of the "mainland policy," launched in 1931, "September 18" incident, the formation of the Asian source of war, and in 1937 launched an all-out war of aggression against China, to form China, Japan to dominate the situation.

      Phase IV: After the Second World War to the Korean War (1945 ~ 1953). This period, the imperialist invasion of China first approach "to China Zhi-Hua", after the development of isolation, blockade, siege. The major countries of aggression against China, the United States. After World War II the United States established the position of world hegemony, control of China in support of Chiang Kai-shek to fight a civil war. After the founding of new China, the United States has taken the political isolation, economic blockade, military siege and other policies, a threat to the security of our country to launch the Korean War and sent the Seventh Fleet into the Taiwan Strait to prevent the liberation of Taiwan in China.

    In modern China, that is, the modernization and industrialization accompanied by industrialization and with the political, economic and cultural development and change. After the Opium War of aggression of foreign forces into China's capitalist future, it is necessary to maintain intact the feudal society impossible. Imperialist rule does not allow China to close the door forces, but also will not allow him to all remain the same. In this case, the emergence of modern China of two tendencies, one is allowed within the scope of the imperialist modernization, that is not a fundamental change in the feudal political and economic system, only in certain areas within a limited extent to the capitalist system side changes. Westernization Group on behalf of its earliest. One is the extent permitted by the imperialist breakthrough to achieve national independence, in order to achieve modernization. Is the pioneer of the bourgeois reformism. China's feudal society was not capitalist normal embryonic development, and brought China into a capitalist society because of imperialist control over China's political and economic lifeline. Of course, the invasion of foreign capitalism on the natural economy of China has played a role in the collapse of the destruction, thus contributing to the commodity economy and capitalist development factors, the Chinese national capital has the privilege of not only by the exclusion of foreign capital, and unable to stand up to China's social dominance in the former living in the capitalist system of exploitation. Imperialism on behalf of the landlord class and the comprador bureaucratic forces in the capital interests of the warlords. Feudal land relations, commercial loan sharks and all the former capital of exploitation of the capitalist system and the superstructure, as a result of imperialism and to the continued existence of the maintenance. Imperialist aggression to block China's industrialization and democratization in the path of independent development, China has become a semi-colonial At the same time, in a feudal state. Therefore, in modern China, is facing two problems: How to get rid of imperialist domination and oppression, became an independent country; how to make China's modernization. These two are closely related. The first从某种角度看,一部中国近代史,也就是中国落后挨打的屈辱史。造成这种屈辱局面的原因,一方面是西方资本主义列强对中国的侵略,另一方面是中国社会制度的落后。西方列强对中国的侵略是世界资本主义发展的必然产物,是资本主义国家开拓殖民地、争夺世界霸权的重要组成部分。列强侵华方式与特点的变化,是与整个资本主义的发展过程与矛盾息息相关的。西方列强的侵略对中国社会产生了深远的影响,既阻碍了中国近代化的步伐,同时客观上刺激了中国新的生产关系的兴起。本主题的内容可从两个方面去注意:一方面是西方资本主义发展与列强侵华的关系,一方面是列强侵华与中国社会各阶级的探索抗争、中国社会经济发展变化的关系。
      第一阶段:鸦片战争到甲午中日战争前(1840~1894年)。这一阶段,西方列强侵华的主要手段是发动战争,主要方式是商品输出,侵华的主要国家是英法美等西方工业发达国家,还有沙俄。这一时期,英法等国为掠夺原料、开拓市场,俄国继续其一贯的侵华政策,他们从海、陆发动了对中国的侵略,先后发动了两次鸦片战争和中法战争,强迫中国签订了《南京条约》等一系列不平等条约,中国领土主权丧失。列强的侵略使中国开始逐步沦为半殖民地半封建社会,成为列强倾销商品和掠夺原料的场所。
       第二阶段:甲午中日战争到一战结束(1894~1918年)。这一时期西方列强侵华的方式,在政治上先是掀起瓜分狂潮后又逐渐实行“以华治华”政策;经济上由商品输出为主向资本输出为主过渡。当时西方国家侵华的主要格局是共同支配,美国占优势,到一战期间日本暂时独霸中国。这一时期,英法美等国的资本主义进一步发展,俄国走上了资本主义道路。接着,主要资本主义国家开始向帝国主义过渡。他们开始进一步对外扩张,他们之间即勾结又争夺,以武力和战争造成中国广大边疆地区的危机,发动了甲午中日战争、八国联军侵华等侵略战争。他们以大举输出资本来控制中国的经济命脉,在中国抢夺路矿权、提供政治性贷款、大规模设厂。他们强占租借地,划分势力范围,企图瓜分中国,变中国为殖民地。而美国“门户开放”政策的提出,标志着美国有了独立的侵华政策,而且在一定程度上形成了列强共同宰割中国的同盟。在义和团运动的打击下,帝国主义改变了瓜分政策,实行“以华治华”的策略,先是扶植清政府,辛亥革命后又扶植袁世凯。这一时期,帝国主义之间的矛盾日趋尖锐,三国干涉还辽、日俄战争、府院之争、日本对德宣战等就是这些矛盾的体现。
       第三阶段:一战后到二战结束(1919~1945年)。这一时期列强侵华的主要方式是从“以华治华”到强占中国。当时侵华的主要国家先是由列强共同支配,后由日本独占。一战后,日美成为争夺中国的主要对手,华盛顿会议打破了日本独霸中国的局面,使中国重新回到了列强共同支配的局面。国民政府统治前期,美国在保障侵华权益、坚持“门户开放”政策的前提下,纵容日本侵华;日本加紧推行“大陆政策”,1931年发动“九一八”事变,亚洲战争策源地形成,1937年又发动全面侵华战争,形成了日本独霸中国的局面。
       第四阶段:二战后到朝鲜战争(1945~1953年)。这一时期,帝国主义的侵华方式先是“以华治华”,后发展为孤立、封锁、包围。侵略中国的主要国家是美国。二战后美国确立了世界霸权地位,控制中国,支持蒋介石打内战。新中国成立后,美国又采取了政治孤立、经济封锁、军事包围等政策,发动朝鲜战争威胁我国安全,派第七舰队进入台湾海峡,阻止我国解放台湾。
       在中国近代,近代化也就是工业化和与工业化相伴随着的政治、经济和文化等方面的发展变化。经过鸦片战争外国资本主义侵略势力进入中国以后,要原封不动地保持封建社会已不可能。帝国主义不允许中国统治势力闭关自守,也不允许他一切保持原样。在这种情况下,中国近代化出现两种倾向,一种是在帝国主义允许范围内的现代化,即不根本改变封建政治经济制度,只在某些方面在有限的程度内进行向资本主义制度靠拢的改变。洋务派是其最早的代表。一种是突破帝国主义许可的范围,争取实现民族独立自主,从而实现现代化。资产阶级改良主义是其先驱。中国封建社会内部的资本主义萌芽之所以没有正常发展起来,使中国进入资本主义社会,原因就在于帝国主义控制了中国的政治和经济命脉。固然,外国资本主义的侵入对中国自然经济起了瓦解破坏作用,从而促进了商品经济和资本主义因素的发展,但中国民族资本不仅遭到具有特权的外国资本的排挤,而且无力抗拒在中国社会中居于统治地位的前资本主义的剥削制度。帝国主义支持代表地主阶级和买办官僚资本利益的军阀势力。封建的土地关系、商业高利贷资本和一切前资本主义的剥削制度及其上层建筑,由于受到帝国主义的维护而得以继续存在。帝国主义的侵略阻断了中国的工业化、民主化的独立发展的道路,使中国在成为半殖民地的同时,又处于半封建的境地。因此,在近代中国,面临两个问题:如何摆脱帝国主义统治和压迫,成为一个独立的国家;如何使中国近代化。这两者密切相关。以首先解决近代化问题为突破口显然是不可能的,中国近代史的事实说明了这一点。只有先解决民族独立问题,才能谈得上近代化的政治、经济和文化的建设。
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    09-07-20 历史 匿名
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