谈谈外国行政执法由人治走向法治的历史过程

谈谈外国行政执法由人治走向法治的历史过程
09-06-11  匿名提问 发布
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    0292

    从人治到法制、法治,是人类文明进步的表现。我党自建国以来,对如何建设社会主义民主法制,进行了艰苦的探索,吸取了人类文明的共同成果。从建国初的人治,到十一届三中全会的“健全社会主义法制",特别是改革开放后的从“法制国家"到"法治国家",其中一字之差,产生了质的飞跃,它包含着新的、更高层次的理论内涵和重大的实践意义,反映了中国领导人在认识上的统一和重大提高。



    法制、法治以及人治是三个既有区别又有联系的概念。首先,从约定俗成的意义上说,法制和法治两个概念的用法历来不同。法制是法律制度的简称,它是相对于政治制度、经济制度、文化制度以及其他各种制度而言的。法治则是与人治相对的一个概念:主张法治意味着否定人治,赞成人治则意味着反对法治。法治和人治被人们在对立的意义上加以使用,在中外历史上已经存在了几千年。中国近代资本主义思想家政治家如孙中山等也倡导以民主政治和法治取代封建专制政治和人治,并有精辟论述。尤其是中国共产党的历任领导人中,也同样是在与人治相对的意义上运用法治一词。



    其次,法制与法治两个概念的内涵不同。法制的基本内涵是指法律以及与法律的制定和实施相关的各种制度(如立法制度、司法制度等)。法治的基本内涵是与人治不同甚至对立的一种治国理论和治国方略或原则。作为一种治国理论,法治和人治探讨的是一个国家长治久安、兴旺发达的关键问题。“法治论”认为,关键在于要有一套良好的法律制度,并予以充分实施;“人治论”则相反,认为关键在于国家领导人是不是贤明,“法律只能作为办事的参考".主张法制并不意味着否定领导人可以发挥巨大作用,而是认为领导人贤明与否不应成为决定国家前途命运的关键所在。作为一种治国原则,“法治论”主张法律应有极大甚至无上的权威,不能听任个人和组织的权威凌驾于法律之上;“人治论”则相反,它主张或默认组织和个人的权威高于法律的权威,权大于法。



    再次,虽然法治与法制具有内在联系,即实行法治必须要有法制。但我们不能说有了法制就必定有法治。从人类的政治法律实践看,任何国家在任何时期都有这样或那样的法制,但却不一定是在实行法治,如当年希特勒统治的德国和蒋介石统治的中国也有法制,但都不是在实行法治。



    最后,即使在动态意义上理解“法制”,也与现代意义的“法治”相去甚远。“法制”的动态含义即“有法可依,有法必依,执法必严,违法必究”,简单地说就是有法可依,依法办事。对此,我们可以提出两方面的问题,一是有什么法?“恶法"还是“良法”?二是如何才能保证做到“依法”?“依法”的程度如何?显然,这些都是动态意义上的“法制”概念所不曾也无法回答的。与此不同,现代“法治”与民主政治密切相关,它不局限于形式或逻辑意义上考虑问题,不单纯以“有法”、法律完备为满足,还要求在价值层面上考虑法律的好坏,而且,作为现代“法治”的一个鲜明特征,它还强调《宪法》和法律应该具有至高无上的权威,任何组织和个人都不得凌驾于《宪法》和法律之上。因此,现代“法治”要求在法律制定和实施的各个环节上贯彻民主原则,实行立法权、司法权和行政权的分离和互相制约,严格做到法律面前人人平等,体现法律的正当程序原则。



    总之,在中国用法治置换法制,其意义就在于与人治的彻底决裂,法制将真正成为法治下的法制,而不可能是“人治底下的法制”,更不可能再是“法制底下的人治”。倡导法治,反对人治,为解决以下两个始终困扰着中国政治体制和民主法制建设的根本问题提供了切实可行的途径:一是长期以来人们总是把国家和社会的治乱兴衰主要寄托在一两个领导人的英明和威望上,因而在指导思想上忽视甚至无视法治的意义;二是权大于法,办事依人不依法,依言不依法。

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  • 0

    yellowgay

    从人治到法制、法治,是人类文明进步的表现。我党自建国以来,对如何建设社会主义民主法制,进行了艰苦的探索,吸取了人类文明的共同成果。从建国初的人治,到十一届三中全会的“健全社会主义法制",特别是改革开放后的从“法制国家"到"法治国家",其中一字之差,产生了质的飞跃,它包含着新的、更高层次的理论内涵和重大的实践意义,反映了中国领导人在认识上的统一和重大提高。



    法制、法治以及人治是三个既有区别又有联系的概念。首先,从约定俗成的意义上说,法制和法治两个概念的用法历来不同。法制是法律制度的简称,它是相对于政治制度、经济制度、文化制度以及其他各种制度而言的。法治则是与人治相对的一个概念:主张法治意味着否定人治,赞成人治则意味着反对法治。法治和人治被人们在对立的意义上加以使用,在中外历史上已经存在了几千年。中国近代资本主义思想家政治家如孙中山等也倡导以民主政治和法治取代封建专制政治和人治,并有精辟论述。尤其是中国共产党的历任领导人中,也同样是在与人治相对的意义上运用法治一词。



    其次,法制与法治两个概念的内涵不同。法制的基本内涵是指法律以及与法律的制定和实施相关的各种制度(如立法制度、司法制度等)。法治的基本内涵是与人治不同甚至对立的一种治国理论和治国方略或原则。作为一种治国理论,法治和人治探讨的是一个国家长治久安、兴旺发达的关键问题。“法治论”认为,关键在于要有一套良好的法律制度,并予以充分实施;“人治论”则相反,认为关键在于国家领导人是不是贤明,“法律只能作为办事的参考".主张法制并不意味着否定领导人可以发挥巨大作用,而是认为领导人贤明与否不应成为决定国家前途命运的关键所在。作为一种治国原则,“法治论”主张法律应有极大甚至无上的权威,不能听任个人和组织的权威凌驾于法律之上;“人治论”则相反,它主张或默认组织和个人的权威高于法律的权威,权大于法。



    再次,虽然法治与法制具有内在联系,即实行法治必须要有法制。但我们不能说有了法制就必定有法治。从人类的政治法律实践看,任何国家在任何时期都有这样或那样的法制,但却不一定是在实行法治,如当年希特勒统治的德国和蒋介石统治的中国也有法制,但都不是在实行法治。



    最后,即使在动态意义上理解“法制”,也与现代意义的“法治”相去甚远。“法制”的动态含义即“有法可依,有法必依,执法必严,违法必究”,简单地说就是有法可依,依法办事。对此,我们可以提出两方面的问题,一是有什么法?“恶法"还是“良法”?二是如何才能保证做到“依法”?“依法”的程度如何?显然,这些都是动态意义上的“法制”概念所不曾也无法回答的。与此不同,现代“法治”与民主政治密切相关,它不局限于形式或逻辑意义上考虑问题,不单纯以“有法”、法律完备为满足,还要求在价值层面上考虑法律的好坏,而且,作为现代“法治”的一个鲜明特征,它还强调《宪法》和法律应该具有至高无上的权威,任何组织和个人都不得凌驾于《宪法》和法律之上。因此,现代“法治”要求在法律制定和实施的各个环节上贯彻民主原则,实行立法权、司法权和行政权的分离和互相制约,严格做到法律面前人人平等,体现法律的正当程序原则。



    总之,在中国用法治置换法制,其意义就在于与人治的彻底决裂,法制将真正成为法治下的法制,而不可能是“人治底下的法制”,更不可能再是“法制底下的人治”。倡导法治,反对人治,为解决以下两个始终困扰着中国政治体制和民主法制建设的根本问题提供了切实可行的途径:一是长期以来人们总是把国家和社会的治乱兴衰主要寄托在一两个领导人的英明和威望上,因而在指导思想上忽视甚至无视法治的意义;二是权大于法,办事依人不依法,依言不依法。

    09-06-12 | 添加评论 | 打赏

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  • 0

    qwe364

    From the rule of man to the rule of law, the rule of law, is the performance of the progress of human civilization. I have since the founding of the party since, on how to build a socialist democracy and the rule of law, conducted a painstaking exploration, learn the common achievements of human civilization. From the founding of the beginning of the rule of man, to the Third Plenary Session of the "improve the socialist legal system", especially after the reform and opening-up of "the rule of law" to "the rule of law", which一字之差produced a qualitative leap in It contains a new, higher level of theoretical content and of great practical importance, reflecting the understanding of Chinese leaders in a unified and significant raise.







    The rule of law, the rule of law and the rule of man there are three distinct concepts. First of all, common sense, the rule of law and the rule of law has always been the use of two different concepts. The rule of law is referred to the legal system, it is in relation to political and economic systems, cultural systems, as well as other terms of the various systems. The rule of law and the rule of man is a relative concept: the rule of law means that negate the rule of man, in favor of the rule of man is opposed to the rule of law means. The rule of law and the rule of man was in the opposite sense to use them, in the Chinese and foreign history has existed for thousands of years. China's modern capitalist thinkers such as Sun Yat-sen and other politicians have also advocated democracy and the rule of law to replace the feudal autocratic politics and the rule of man, and brilliant exposition. In particular, the successive leaders of the Communist Party of China, also the same with the man in the sense of the relative use of the term rule of law.







    Secondly, the concept of the rule of law and the rule of law in two different connotations. The basic meaning of the rule of law refers to legal and law related to the development and implementation of various systems (such as the legislative system, judicial system, etc.). The basic meaning of the rule of law and the rule of man is different and even conflicting theories and running a country strategy or principles. Theory as a rule, the rule of law and the rule of man to explore the long-term stability of a country, the prosperity of the key issues. "On the rule of law" that the key is to have a good legal system and be fully implemented; "man on" the contrary, the key is that state leaders are not wise, "the law can only serve as a reference work." Advocated the rule of law negative does not mean that leaders can play a huge role, but whether or not that wise leaders of the future of the country should not be decided the fate of the key. As a principle governing the country, "the rule of law theory" that the law should be great and even the supreme authority, can not allow the authority of individuals and organizations above the law; "On the rule of man" is the contrary, it claims, or default of organizations and individuals authority than the authority of law, the right is greater than the law.







    Again, although the rule of law is inherently linked with the rule of law, that is, the rule of law must be the rule of law. But we can not say that there must be a rule of law on the rule of law. From the human political and legal practice in any country at any given time has the rule of law one way or another, but not necessarily in the implementation of the rule of law, such as when Hitler's Germany and the rule of Chiang Kai-shek's rule, China also has the rule of law, but not in the rule of law .







    Finally, even if understood in a dynamic sense, "the rule of law", but also with the modern sense of "rule of law" a far cry from the. "The rule of law" that is, the dynamics of the meaning of "In the end, there is law, and lawbreakers must be dealt," is simply a legal basis and in accordance with the law. In this regard, we can propose two issues, first, what law? "Laws" or "good law"? The second is how to ensure that "in accordance with the law"? "In accordance with the law" to what extent? Obviously, these are dynamic sense of the word "legal" concept did not have the answer. Different, modern "rule of law" and democracy are closely related, it is not restricted to the form or logical sense to consider not just the "law", a comprehensive law to meet, but also consider the level in the value of good and bad law and, as a modern "rule of law" as a distinct characteristic, it also stressed that "the Constitution" and should have the supreme legal authority, any organization or individual are allowed to override the "Constitution" and the law. Therefore, the modern "rule of law" requires the formulation and implementation of the law in all aspects of carrying out the democratic principles on the implementation of legislative, judicial and executive power of the separation and mutual constraints, to achieve strict equality before the law embodied the principle of due process of law .



    In short, the rule of law in China replacement rule of law, its significance lies in the fact that a complete break with the rule of man, the rule of law will truly become the rule of law under the rule of law, and can not be "the rule of law under the rule of man", but can not afford to be "the rule of law under the rule of man" . To advocate the rule of law and oppose the rule of man, in order to address the following two problems has always been China's political system and the fundamental democratic and legal system to provide a practical way: First, a long time people have to combat confusion and the state and society at the mercy of the rise and fall of a major the two leaders on the wise and prestige and therefore ignored in the guiding ideology or even ignore the significance of the rule of law; Second, the right is greater than the law does not act in accordance with the law, not to conduct itself in accordance with the law.从人治到法制、法治,是人类文明进步的表现。我党自建国以来,对如何建设社会主义民主法制,进行了艰苦的探索,吸取了人类文明的共同成果。从建国初的人治,到十一届三中全会的“健全社会主义法制",特别是改革开放后的从“法制国家"到"法治国家",其中一字之差,产生了质的飞跃,它包含着新的、更高层次的理论内涵和重大的实践意义,反映了中国领导人在认识上的统一和重大提高。



    法制、法治以及人治是三个既有区别又有联系的概念。首先,从约定俗成的意义上说,法制和法治两个概念的用法历来不同。法制是法律制度的简称,它是相对于政治制度、经济制度、文化制度以及其他各种制度而言的。法治则是与人治相对的一个概念:主张法治意味着否定人治,赞成人治则意味着反对法治。法治和人治被人们在对立的意义上加以使用,在中外历史上已经存在了几千年。中国近代资本主义思想家政治家如孙中山等也倡导以民主政治和法治取代封建专制政治和人治,并有精辟论述。尤其是中国共产党的历任领导人中,也同样是在与人治相对的意义上运用法治一词。



    其次,法制与法治两个概念的内涵不同。法制的基本内涵是指法律以及与法律的制定和实施相关的各种制度(如立法制度、司法制度等)。法治的基本内涵是与人治不同甚至对立的一种治国理论和治国方略或原则。作为一种治国理论,法治和人治探讨的是一个国家长治久安、兴旺发达的关键问题。“法治论”认为,关键在于要有一套良好的法律制度,并予以充分实施;“人治论”则相反,认为关键在于国家领导人是不是贤明,“法律只能作为办事的参考".主张法制并不意味着否定领导人可以发挥巨大作用,而是认为领导人贤明与否不应成为决定国家前途命运的关键所在。作为一种治国原则,“法治论”主张法律应有极大甚至无上的权威,不能听任个人和组织的权威凌驾于法律之上;“人治论”则相反,它主张或默认组织和个人的权威高于法律的权威,权大于法。



    再次,虽然法治与法制具有内在联系,即实行法治必须要有法制。但我们不能说有了法制就必定有法治。从人类的政治法律实践看,任何国家在任何时期都有这样或那样的法制,但却不一定是在实行法治,如当年希特勒统治的德国和蒋介石统治的中国也有法制,但都不是在实行法治。



    最后,即使在动态意义上理解“法制”,也与现代意义的“法治”相去甚远。“法制”的动态含义即“有法可依,有法必依,执法必严,违法必究”,简单地说就是有法可依,依法办事。对此,我们可以提出两方面的问题,一是有什么法?“恶法"还是“良法”?二是如何才能保证做到“依法”?“依法”的程度如何?显然,这些都是动态意义上的“法制”概念所不曾也无法回答的。与此不同,现代“法治”与民主政治密切相关,它不局限于形式或逻辑意义上考虑问题,不单纯以“有法”、法律完备为满足,还要求在价值层面上考虑法律的好坏,而且,作为现代“法治”的一个鲜明特征,它还强调《宪法》和法律应该具有至高无上的权威,任何组织和个人都不得凌驾于《宪法》和法律之上。因此,现代“法治”要求在法律制定和实施的各个环节上贯彻民主原则,实行立法权、司法权和行政权的分离和互相制约,严格做到法律面前人人平等,体现法律的正当程序原则。



    总之,在中国用法治置换法制,其意义就在于与人治的彻底决裂,法制将真正成为法治下的法制,而不可能是“人治底下的法制”,更不可能再是“法制底下的人治”。倡导法治,反对人治,为解决以下两个始终困扰着中国政治体制和民主法制建设的根本问题提供了切实可行的途径:一是长期以来人们总是把国家和社会的治乱兴衰主要寄托在一两个领导人的英明和威望上,因而在指导思想上忽视甚至无视法治的意义;二是权大于法,办事依人不依法,依言不依法。
    From the rule of man to the rule of law, the rule of law, is the performance of the progress of human civilization. I have since the founding of the party since, on how to build a socialist democracy and the rule of law, conducted a painstaking exploration, learn the common achievements of human civilization. From the founding of the beginning of the rule of man, to the Third Plenary Session of the "improve the socialist legal system", especially after the reform and opening-up of "the rule of law" to "the rule of law", which一字之差produced a qualitative leap in It contains a new, higher level of theoretical content and of great practical importance, reflecting the understanding of Chinese leaders in a unified and significant raise.







    The rule of law, the rule of law and the rule of man there are three distinct concepts. First of all, common sense, the rule of law and the rule of law has always been the use of two different concepts. The rule of law is referred to the legal system, it is in relation to political and economic systems, cultural systems, as well as other terms of the various systems. The rule of law and the rule of man is a relative concept: the rule of law means that negate the rule of man, in favor of the rule of man is opposed to the rule of law means. The rule of law and the rule of man was in the opposite sense to use them, in the Chinese and foreign history has existed for thousands of years. China's modern capitalist thinkers such as Sun Yat-sen and other politicians have also advocated democracy and the rule of law to replace the feudal autocratic politics and the rule of man, and brilliant exposition. In particular, the successive leaders of the Communist Party of China, also the same with the man in the sense of the relative use of the term rule of law.







    Secondly, the concept of the rule of law and the rule of law in two different connotations. The basic meaning of the rule of law refers to legal and law related to the development and implementation of various systems (such as the legislative system, judicial system, etc.). The basic meaning of the rule of law and the rule of man is different and even conflicting theories and running a country strategy or principles. Theory as a rule, the rule of law and the rule of man to explore the long-term stability of a country, the prosperity of the key issues. "On the rule of law" that the key is to have a good legal system and be fully implemented; "man on" the contrary, the key is that state leaders are not wise, "the law can only serve as a reference work." Advocated the rule of law negative does not mean that leaders can play a huge role, but whether or not that wise leaders of the future of the country should not be decided the fate of the key. As a principle governing the country, "the rule of law theory" that the law should be great and even the supreme authority, can not allow the authority of individuals and organizations above the law; "On the rule of man" is the contrary, it claims, or default of organizations and individuals authority than the authority of law, the right is greater than the law.







    Again, although the rule of law is inherently linked with the rule of law, that is, the rule of law must be the rule of law. But we can not say that there must be a rule of law on the rule of law. From the human political and legal practice in any country at any given time has the rule of law one way or another, but not necessarily in the implementation of the rule of law, such as when Hitler's Germany and the rule of Chiang Kai-shek's rule, China also has the rule of law, but not in the rule of law .







    Finally, even if understood in a dynamic sense, "the rule of law", but also with the modern sense of "rule of law" a far cry from the. "The rule of law" that is, the dynamics of the meaning of "In the end, there is law, and lawbreakers must be dealt," is simply a legal basis and in accordance with the law. In this regard, we can propose two issues, first, what law? "Laws" or "good law"? The second is how to ensure that "in accordance with the law"? "In accordance with the law" to what extent? Obviously, these are dynamic sense of the word "legal" concept did not have the answer. Different, modern "rule of law" and democracy are closely related, it is not restricted to the form or logical sense to consider not just the "law", a comprehensive law to meet, but also consider the level in the value of good and bad law and, as a modern "rule of law" as a distinct characteristic, it also stressed that "the Constitution" and should have the supreme legal authority, any organization or individual are allowed to override the "Constitution" and the law. Therefore, the modern "rule of law" requires the formulation and implementation of the law in all aspects of carrying out the democratic principles on the implementation of legislative, judicial and executive power of the separation and mutual constraints, to achieve strict equality before the law embodied the principle of due process of law .



    In short, the rule of law in China replacement rule of law, its significance lies in the fact that a complete break with the rule of man, the rule of law will truly become the rule of law under the rule of law, and can not be "the rule of law under the rule of man", but can not afford to be "the rule of law under the rule of man" . To advocate the rule of law and oppose the rule of man, in order to address the following two problems has always been China's political system and the fundamental democratic and legal system to provide a practical way: First, a long time people have to combat confusion and the state and society at the mercy of the rise and fall of a major the two leaders on the wise and prestige and therefore ignored in the guiding ideology or even ignore the significance of the rule of law; Second, the right is greater than the law does not act in accordance with the law, not to conduct itself in accordance with the law.

    09-07-22 | 添加评论 | 打赏

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