Scholar of ancient Chinese scholar-officials of the call for some. Ming and Qing Dynasties, generally refers to the adoption of the Imperial Civil Service Examination Institute of Health member, is a scholar-officials in the most basic.
Scholar before the start of an examination has been in the Sui Dynasty. In the Han dynasty held the use of police system, the state elected by popular talent as "scholar." Sui Dynasty began to open branches to take disabilities, also taking the first scholar. By the Tang dynasty, the scholar is often a kind of test subjects. But then, "scholar Division" was abolished scholar once the term has become a reader's Pan said. The Song dynasty, when, where parts of the government through the test, whether or not third, can be called a scholar. Therefore, there was "not the first scholar," said.
Ming and Qing, the scholar after hospital tests, to be admission of "health trainers" commonly known. Received scholar qualification is the minimum threshold to enter the literati class. Become a scholar, which represents With "fame" in the body, at the local level by a certain degree of respect, there are a variety of privileges. For example, exemption from poor Yao, see no need to kneel, when the magistrate, the magistrate can not be free to its use of torture, the event official can see the magistrate, and so intrinsic. Scholar in the majority poor family background, but may not necessarily get scholar can bring fame and wealth. Only health workers qualified scholar and not an official's salary, if after the adoption of provincial examinations failed to move, they are unable to Crown. Many scholar failed to further the fame and only returned home to teach other methods for a living. These are not economically well-off, but slightly higher than the status of the civilian population in the community of scholars known as the "poor scholar." During the Ming and Qing China, the scholar is one of the pillars of local gentry. At the local villages, they represent the "knowledge book knowledge Ceremony" of the scholars. Because they have all the privileges of local officials before, so often as a general communication between the civilian population with officials of the channel. Case of local disputes, or the government office dealing with the civilian population, often go through scholar come forward. The general civilian population in case of weddings, funerals, family matters, or festive seasons, have requested the help of the village scholar to write couplets, write off such customs as the sacrifice.
Ming and Qing Dynasty, scholar refers specifically to the government (or a Zhili state) school, county and school health staff, was a student in classics and into post-secondary scholars said. To achieve this qualification, you must learn Road, also known as Boy and Girl try to get enrolled. Regardless of age, should have said the boy Boy examinations. Lu Xun's "Kong Yiji", "white" in the hero Yiji, Chen Qing Dynasty on many occasions in the Boy into the trial were enough to test into, people become old, or Tong-sheng, or the old Tong-sheng. If the county government, the hospital had admitted three trial, and entered in an official study, states (Zhili state) school or county school, called into the study, generic term health staff, that scholar's common name. In addition to health workers often go to school, learning officer for monitoring and evaluating, but also through the expedition selection (not to take those who have registered subjects, recording left two make-up opportunities), before participating in this Provincial Examination (held in the provincial examinations, taken in the who is juren).
Boy try lined with barriers, whether there are other means of entering political stratum do? In fact, the candidate always without a Boy trial, or scientific research, nor to participate in the provincial examinations. Way is to participate in the so-called "Na Su into the prison." This system began in the mid-Ming Dynasty, has been OK to the late Qing Dynasty. "Na Su into the prison" is of silver donated a supervisor of Health, Provincial Examination to obtain admission qualification (for more is that people who donated money not to learn jail term is not admission examination). This pathway, is often underestimated, but there are always unexpected: Ming Luo Gui Boy can not test all seven examinations, donated jail but in the Provincial Examination, the company will try and be the first.
Provincial Examination in the fall (before and after the Mid-Autumn Festival) was held, it is called autumn door to women's (door to women is the meaning of the examination room). The next spring (in the lunar calendar in February or later) to be test, known as the spring door to women. Will try and chaired by the Ministry of Rites, also known as the Board of Rites test, courtesy door to women. Will try and followed by successful candidates. Ming and Qing Dynasty, under normal circumstances, this examination once every three years; the event of national ceremonies and increase Enke. Created by Liu Hong-Ping秀才是古代中国对某些士大夫的称呼。明清时，一般指通过了科举中院试的生员，属士大夫中的最基层。