什么是群体?

什么是群体?
08-11-15  爱人_xun 发布
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    一、群体的涵义和特征。
    群体作为社会学分析的具体单位,在社会学的先驱者那里,就已被列人研究的重要内容。但对群体作出明确的定义,还是本世纪初的事。美国社会学家阿尔比恩·W·斯莫尔在1905年将群体定义为“一大群或一小群的人,在期间所存在的关系使我们必须把他们作为整体来考虑。”①此后,人们认为这一定义过于宽泛,于是对群体的涵义又提出了各种各样的解释。我们认为,群体是人们通过某种社会关系联结起来,进行共同活动和感情交流的集体。它既同社会和个人相区别,又介于社会和个人之间,并且是联结二者的中介。
    群体大致有以下特征:
    1.有一定数量的社会成员。群体成员至少有两个人,这是构成群体的主体基础。在较大的群体中,还有一定的组织结构和一定的分工协作,并且有权威人物的存在.
    2.有一定的为群体成员所接受的目标。群体目标是群体功能的具体体现,也是组织的灵魂。没有目标的群体是不可能存在的。
    3.有明确的成员关系,并形成归属感。群体成员之间互相依赖,在心理和行为上互相影响,围绕群体目标开展活动,具有相对独特的互动方式。
    4.有一定的行为准则。群体规范有些是明文规定的,有些则是约定俗成的,它保证群体有秩序地、协调地开展活动。
    5.时间上具有一定的持续性。任何群体都是现实的社会实体,它不仅占有一定的空间位置,而且在时间上也具有一定的持续性。
    从群体的界定可以看到,群体和我们一般所讲的人群是不同的概念。在社会学研究中,人群通常是指那些偶发聚集体,也就是偶然地在同时间同一地方临时聚集起来的一群人,比如搭乘公共汽车的乘客。商店里购物的顾客、电影院里观看电影的观众、餐厅里就餐的食客等等。在这些人群的成员之间并不发生具有意义的社会互动,也没有共同的归属感,聚合的时间也十分短暂。因此他们不能算作群体。然而需要指出的是,即使是松散的人群,在一定条件下也会转化为我们所说的群体。比方说,公共汽车上突然有乘客晕倒,这时乘客们就可能会彼此交换意见,寻求救助的办法,这时这群人就有了一定的目标,出现了朝向这个目标的社会互动,于是就会形成实际的群体。
    我于1980年出生在美丽的西子湖畔。上中学时,老师和同学对我的评价是:看上去柔弱,但社会活动能力挺强。
    进人大学后,我参加了学校里一个与我所学专业有关的学生社团——法学会。刚入会的时候,我只是打打杂,跟着高年级同学的指挥棒转。我充分发挥自己的特长,从最基础、最琐碎的事情做起。写宣传海报,向系刊、校刊投稿,筹备学会活动,等等。学会交给我的每一件事,我都很认真、出色地去完成。于是,我获得了很好的人际关系,遇到什么难事,我只要一招手,便有同学采帮我。大二下学期,在大家的一致拥护下,我成为法学会会长。
    接手法学会的,学校正对学生社团采取优胜劣汰政策。带着压力,我和会员一起为法学会的生存和发展努力着。我们走出校门,与学校周围的居委会联系,在居民小区内设立了十几个法律信箱,定期开启,回答居民的法律问题;还不定期地到社区开展法律咨询,取得了很好的社会效果。
    我们法学会有一个王牌活动项目——“模拟法庭”。为了使这一活动上一个新台阶,我与会员们一起深人社会,到中学、乡镇、企业去普及法律知识,进行模拟法庭巡演。所到之处,反响强烈。媒体也对这一活动做了多次报道。功夫不负有心人。我主持的法学会被学校评为优秀甲级社团,并推荐为向币里申报的“明星社团”。
    回顾法学会的活动,我和我的同学们虽然都付出了很多,但同时也得到了很多的锻炼。这段经历,将令我们终身难忘。
    资料来源:摘编自祝蓓里、杠公卓主编:《爱与成长》,华东师范大学出版社2001年版。
    二、群体的类型
    作为人类基本活动形式的群体,有着纷繁复杂的类型。依据不同的标准,可以将群体划分为不同类别。有人曾作过统计,目前,对群体已经有近40种分类方法。下面介绍几种主要的分类方法和群体类型。
    (一)初级群体和次级群体
    初级群体和次级群体是以成员的互动关系特征为标准,而进行的一种群体分类,这是社会学群体研究中最经典的分类之一。
    初级群体又称作首属群体,是社会群体中最古老、最基本的形式,是个人参加社会生活的基础群体。如家庭、邻里、游戏伙伴等,都属于初级群体。初级群体概念是20世纪初由美国社会学家C·库利提出来的。他认为,个人总是从一些直接的、人数不多的、亲密的交往过程中形成最初的社会关系,由这些初级的社会关系联结起来的群体就是初级群体。初级群体具有规模较小、面对面交往、认同感强烈等特性。
    次级群体又称作次属群体,是用来表示与初级群体相对应的各种群体,如学校、职业群体、社团等。次级群体是人们为了达到一定的社会目的而建立起来的。一般说来,次级群体规模比初级群体要大,成员较多,有些成员之间不一定有直接的个人接触,群体内人们的联系往往通过一些中间环节来建立。次级群体既是个人步人社会所必须加人的群体,也是个人社会活动领域拓展和活动能力增强的标志。
    (二)正式群体和非正式群体
    正式群体和非正式群体是以群体的关系结构和组织功能为标准,而进行的一种群体分类。
    正式群体也就是社会组织,其具体内涵,将在下一章详细论述。
    非正式群体与正式群体不同,它不是由上级社会结构组织起来的,而是在成员个人倡议的基础上建立的。因此,一般说来,非正式群体是一种自发形成的、无正式组织结构、无正式章程的群体,如朋友群、游伴群等。非正式群体既存在于正式群体之外,也可以在正式群体内部形成。非正式群体的主要功能是满足个人工作之外的一些心理需要,个性特征、情境和共同兴趣,在构成非正式群体中起着重要作用。正是在这个意义上,有人又把非正式群体称作心理群体或兴趣群体。
    正式群体和非正式群体的概念,是在美国学者G·梅约于1927—1932年进行的著名的霍桑实验以后,才正式成为社会学的术语的。梅约研究发现,在企业中,在正式群体以外,还存在一种自发形成的群体。这种非正式组织起来的群体所产生的“社会舆论”,是每个成员的劳动态度的道德标准,对班组的团结。风气、绩效有着重要影响。
    (三)内群体和外群体
    内群体和外群体是以成员对群体的心理归属为标准,而进行的一种群体分类。
    内群体和外群体,又称作“我群”和“他群”。这两个概念是由萨姆纳在《民俗论》(1907年)一书中最先提出的。萨姆纳认为,根据成员对自己与群体关系密切程度的自我感觉以及对不同群体的态度,可以将群体分为内群体和外群体。凡是成员感到自己与群体关系密切,对群体有强烈归属感的,就是内群体。而那些由他人结合而成、与自己没有什么关系的群体,就属于外群体。内群体和外群体是通过“我们”和“他们”的群体界限来划分和定义的。这些群体界限,有的是有形的,如学校的校徽,就是一种群体界限符号。然而,更多的则是基于群体成员一种感情上的亲切和态度上的认同,这种认同促使成员之间亲密、团结、协调、台作。因此,内群体和外群体的研究,对于揭示社会伦理问题,有着更显著的意义。
    (四)成员群体和参照群体
    参照群体和成员群体是以群体成员的归属为标准,而进行的一种群体分类。
    成员群体也就是内群体,个人属于该群体的成员,并以本群体的规范作为自己活动的准则,各成员之间在行为上彼此互相影响。
    参照群体是指被某一群体成员用来作为某种参照对象并试图效法的群体。参照群体的概念是借用自然科学中的“参照系”一词演化而来的,有“目标”、“标准”的含义,所以也叫作“标准群体”或“榜样群体”。参照群体不是人们所属的群体,而是个人心目中想要加人或理想中的群体,它的价值观和规范体系常常是参照者个人的目标或标准。如大学生群体往往是那些想考人大学的高中生的参照群体;某个著名球队往往成为一些球迷的参照群体,等等。不同性质的参照群体有不同的特点,其权威性和影响力也不尽相同。一个人如果把一个或多个群体看作自己的参照群体,也就会自觉或不自觉地用参照群体的价值观和规范来对照自己行为,指导自己的行动。
    参照群体的概念,是由美国社会学家海曼提出的。后来,一些研究者把参照群体概念扩大到个人对自己的社会地位、行为和观点评价的标准等问题上。因此,参照群体既可以指个人所羡慕的群体或他曾是其成员的群体,也可以指他所属的群体;既可以指小群体,也可以指大群体。有的甚至具体的个人也可能充当参照群体的角色。
    (五)大群体和小群体
    大群体和小群体是以群体的规模为标准,而进行的一种群体分类。
    大群体一般指规模较大、人数较多、人员之间较少直接互动的群体。典型的大群体是如阶级群体这样的利益群体。这类群体人数众多,活动方式和组合形式有的超出了作为实体的群体范围,在其中甚至还可以划分出许多具有实体形式的群体。
    小群体则是指那些规模较小、成员之间能够直接互动的群体。小群体的主要特征是:成员间有面对面的联系,行为上相互作用、相互影响;成员在心理上彼此意识到对方,保持着直接的思想沟通;具有共同认可的群体规范。小群体研究在群体研究中占有重要地位。美国社会学者西奥多·M·米尔斯认为,小群体是更一般的社会系统,它不仅是微观系统,而且基本上是大社会的缩影。仔细研究这些微观系统,可以构架理论模型,然后应用到较难直接接触的社会中去,发展一般社会系统思考方法。
    群体除了上述分类之外,还可以按照形成的直接纽带分为血缘群体、地缘群体、业缘群体、志缘群体和趣缘群体;按照对社会的作用性质分为积极群体和消极群体,等等。同时,这些分类又互相交叉。因此,我们在对具体群体进行研究时,必须选择好分析的视角,并且注意不同类别群体之间的交互影响。
    三、初级群体
    (一)初级群体的涵义和特征
    初级群体作为由面对面的互动所形成的、具有亲密的人际关系的社会群体,在社会生活中具有重要的地位和作用。
    从总体上分析,初级群体具有以下特征:一是规模小。初级群体的规模一般在几人到十几个或二十几人之间,在小规模的群体里,成员之间进行着全面深人的交往。二是有长期的、经常的面对面互动。初级群体由于人数少,成员间可以直接交往而不需要中间环节,在直接的。面对面的交往中,成员之间对彼此的音容笑貌、行为举止都十分熟悉,从而增进了彼此的感情联系。三是成员的人格特征可以得到比较全面的表现,初级群体成员之间大都处于一种较为宽松的氛围,因此可以表现出比较全面的人格特征。四是成员之间的角色位置难以替代。在初级群体中,由于人们之间有着自然形成而非外部强加的角色关系,具有强烈的感情联系,所以在彼此的心目中都具有独特的地位,难以简单地替换。五是习惯、伦理道德和感情在维系群体中发挥着重要作用。初级群体一般不靠严格的规章、制度或法律等正式手段来维护,群体成员能够很好地处理相互关系,所依靠的是习惯,人们在初级群体中生活,通常感到比较自由,不太受拘束。
    (二)初级群体的类型
    1.家庭。家庭是最基本的初级群体。对于家庭的分析,我们将在第二节详细阐述。
    2.邻里。邻里是在地缘关系基础上结成的友好往来、守望相助的共同体。邻里既指左邻右舍几户人家,也指一个小村落或一个居民点等。在传统社会,邻里关系往往比较密切,“远亲不如近邻”就是这种现象的写照。现代社会由于商品经济的发展,人们的迁移频繁,加之高楼大厦的兴建,使邻里关系淡化。特别是在大城市的许多新区,传统的邻里形式已发生重大变化。但在农村或小城镇,邻里依然是十分重要的初级群体,发挥着重要的社会功能。
    3.伙伴群体。伙伴群体是指以性格、志向、兴趣、感情、个性等因素为纽带结合而成的一种非正式群体。这类群体对人的社会化,尤其是对于青少年世界观、人生观、价值观的形成,发挥着重要的影响作用。
    (三)现代社会中的初级群体
    现代社会,随着经济和社会生活的发展,初级群体的功能出现了衰退和外移的现象。人们参与初级群体活动越来越少,初级群体成员之间发生的联系减少,彼此的依赖程度降低,交往的时间缩短,造成初级群体成员间的关系变得松散。初级群体的这些变化,既有历史的进步意义,也带来了一些消极影响。这些消极影响突出表现在:对老年人的赡养与照顾问题;出现“破损家庭”中儿童的社会化问题;对人们的感情需要等方面带来的困难。在西方发达国家中,人们普遍存在孤独感,精神病患病率增长,酒精中毒与吸毒现象增多,社会上人情淡漠,等等,
    些社会不良现象的滋长,与初级群体的衰落有一定的联系。因此,一些社会学家呼吁,在现代化进程中,要加强初级群体建设,重视其功能的发挥。我国在现代化的进程中,也应该警惕这种现象的发生。

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    dhy4008

    瑞士心理学家,分析心理学创始人荣格的分析心理学用语。指由遗传保留的无数同类型经验在心理最深层积淀的人类普遍性精神。在1922年《论分析心 理学与诗的关系》一文中提出。荣格认为人的无意识有个体的和非个体(或超个体)的两个层面。前者只到达婴儿最早记忆的程度,是由冲动、愿望、模糊的知觉以 及经验组成的无意识;后者则包括婴儿实际开始以前的全部时间,即包括祖先生命的残留,它的内容能在一切人的心中找到,带有普遍性,故称“集体无意识”。集 体无意识的内容是原始的,包括本能和原型。它只是一种可能,以一种不明确的记忆形式积淀在人的大脑组织结构之中,在一定条件下能被唤醒、激活。荣格认为“ 集体无意识”中积淀着的原始意象是艺术创作源泉。一个象征性的作品,其根源只能在“集体无意识”领域中找到,它使人们看到或听到人类原始意识的原始意象或 遥远回声,并形成顿悟,产生美感。
    弗洛伊德以揭示了人的精神结构而享誉于世,他认为:“人的精神生活包含两个主要部分:意识的部分和无意识的部分。意识部分小而不重要,只代表人格的外表方 面,而广阔有力的无意识部分则包含着隐藏的种种力量,这些力量乃是在人类行为背后的内力。”他还作过一个形象的比喻,说人的精神结构恰如一座冰山,其露出 的1/8是意识部分,而淹没在水面以下的7/8是无意识部分。也就是说,无意识属于人的心理结构中更深的层次,是人的心理结构中最真实最本质的部分。他的 得意门生荣格继承了他的学说,并对他的无意识的构成内容作了全新的修改。荣格认为,无意识有两个层次:“个人无意识和集体无意识”。对此,他也有一个形象 的比喻:“高出水面的一些小岛代表一些人的个体意识的觉醒部分;由于潮汐运动才露出来的水面下的陆地部分代表个体的个人无意识,所有的岛最终以为基地的海 床就是集体无意识。”
    所谓集体无意识,简单地说,就是一种代代相传的无数同类经验在某一种族全体成员心理上的沉淀物,而之所以能代代相传,正因为有着相应的社会结构作为这种集体无意识的支柱。
    编辑本段【它是典型群体心理现象】
    “集体无意识”作为一种典型的群体心理现象无处不在,并一直在默默而深刻地影响着我们的社会、我们的思想和我们的行为,鲁迅笔下的祥林嫂就是“封建社会” 下所形成集体无意识的牺牲品。股票市场作为一种典型的人类社会活动,其中的集体无意识现象也同样常常存在,这一方面是因为股票市场参与者之所以来到这个市 场,其本身一定具有某些共同的性格特征,另一方面是因为股票市场本身的波动性等特征更容易将个体的心智潜移默化地转向集体的意识。
    股票市场参与者的逐利性、投机性等共同特征决定了其很难淡化自己在市场交易中的得失观,也较难以更长远的视野和更辽阔的心怀来思考问题、处理交易,这天然 地不利于交易者规避集体无意识现象的干扰;股票市场的波动性和流动性特征天然地是将集体无意识现象所导致的买卖行为发挥得淋漓尽致的外在条件,而这又将进 一步“反射”和“强化”参与者的集体无意识.
    探讨市场交易中的集体无意识现象,一方面是要提醒我们时刻保持对市场的一种“中性”心态,不被市场或乐观或悲观的情绪所感染而“蒙蔽”自身的心智,尽量以 “客观的”市场存在来判断市场的基本格局并进而拟订自己的交易计划,另一方面还可以据此设计一些诸如“市场心理阀值”等来作为“洞察市场”的工具。
    尽管我们无意在此具体精确地计算出市场现时所能容忍下跌空间的心理阀值,但市场经验也告诉我,现在的市场已经到了考验市场参与各方心理阀值的关键时刻;尽 管现时市场大盘指数的“客观”状态还处于一种典型“空头排列”当中,但面对一个已经调整了21个交易周、已经有新股跌破发行价且又刚刚收出中阴的市场,我 却也不能不如此告诫自己:可能是一个我们要警惕悲观情绪的“集体无意识”状态出现的时候了。何况,市场结构调整的剧烈、个股板块与大盘指数运行的差异加大 也同样是今年市场不同于历史上市场任何一个阶段的“客观状态”,这种客观状态也是我们在制订交易计划时所不应该忽视的,个人的市场交易活动是寓于群体活动 之中的,市场外围环境的各种变化一定是通过群体的心理解析并形成思想后再作用于市场,而作用于市场的结果本身又会反馈回来对市场参与群体的心理构成新的作 用,于是,市场群体心理的迷茫状态表现于市场就是大的震荡格局,市场心理的趋同状态表现于市场就是市场趋势的形成,而集体无意识状态强烈地出现之日,往往 可能就是市场形成转折点之时。因此,我认为,市场心理分析是一个与市场技术分析、市场基本分析同样重要的分析工具,一个不进行市场群体心理分析的交易者一 定是一个只见海面浪花而无视海底潮流的观海人,难怪当人们异口同声地宣称“市场总是对的”的时候,索罗斯却在告诫人们“市场往往是错的”。
    编辑本段【集体无意识与原型批评】
    “集体无意识”和“原型”概念成为以后文学批评中的术语,推动了精神分析美学的发展。20世纪80年代引入中国,产生一定影响。
    从精神分析学的角度来看,作家艺术家是最合适的分析对象,美国的艺术批评家莱昂耐尔.特里林说:“为什么作为精神分析解释的对象,作家被认为比别的人更为 有效呢?一个原因就是,他们能将自己的内心活动表现出来。有时,即使他们不对自己的毛病作实际诊断,也不去描述其‘症状’。我们仍应记住,处理各种幻想是 他们的本行,也正是他们工作的性质。他也许可以用种种方法将自己的无意识掩饰起来,然而掩饰绝不能隐藏得住。实际上可以这样说,一位作家在创作中,愈是煞 费苦心地想从个性及主观上将无意识排队掉,他反倒会更多地——而不是更少地——表现出自己真实的无意识,尽管还达不到表现出无意识的大部分情境的地步。”
    从原型批评的角度来理解这段话,就是艺术家所创造的形象是某种文化原型的以无意识的方式世代相传的结果。由无意识所体现出来的个体的文化特征,是由作者童 年时所生存的文化环境决定的。这个环境就是由符号构成的风俗与行为方式,世代相传的童年生活保持了某一文化的延续性。
    原型的变异大约有三种方式:①民族的迁移;②口头的传颂;③无意识的积淀。
    原型与无意识的关系,在理论上要归功于荣格。
    1909年,荣格同弗洛伊德同赴美国克拉克大学讲学,船要航行七个星期。他们每天都在甲板上相会,彼此分析对方的梦。荣格说他处在一所陌生的房子里,房子 有两层,他在上面一层,那里是一个沙龙,有一些古旧的罗可可式家具,墙上挂着几张珍贵的古画。他很惊讶自己会有这样一间房子。接着他便想到自己还不知下面 一层是什么样子,于是走下楼梯,来到底层,这里的一切都更加古老,他觉得室中的布置是中世纪的,地面用红砖铺成,到处都很黑暗。走进一个套间,他无意中发 现一扇厚重的门,打开门,看到有一楼梯通向地下室,顺梯而下,便又来到一个看上去极其古老的、美丽的圆顶房间,从那墙壁的砖石,他辨认出是属于罗马时代 的。他的好奇心更加强烈起来,仔细审视地面,在一块石板上看到一个环。拉住环将石板抬起,再次看到一个狭窄的石阶梯向下通向深处。他又顺着往下走,进入一 个低矮的石洞中,地上积着厚厚的尘土,尘土中四散着骨头和破碎的陶器,好像是原始文化的遗迹。他看到两个头骨,十分古远,有些破碎,正在端详之际,梦醒 了。弗洛伊德的分析是他盼望某两个人死去,荣格为了讨好,便说头骨象自己的妻子和一位亲戚。荣格自己的解释是:“我很清楚好房子代表着一种精神的意象,就 是说,代表着我当时的意识状况以及到那时为止的无意识附属物。沙龙代表意识,它虽然古色古香,却有人居住的气息。下面一层代表无意识的第一个层次。我越往 下走,那景象就变得越怪异和越黑暗。在洞穴中,我发现了原始文化的遗迹。那就是在我自身之中的原始人的世界——一个几乎无法为意识所达到或照亮的世界。人 的原始心理邻接着动物的灵魂的生命,正象史前时代的洞穴在人占有之前常常居住着动物一样。”这个梦为他提供的启示是,它指出了文化史的基础——意识的不断 积累的历史。这就是集体无意识。
    荣格为集体无意识所下的定义是:“集体无意识是人类心理的一部分,它可以依据下述事实而同个体无意识做否定性的区别:它不象个体无意识那样依赖个体经验而 存在,因而不是一种个人的心理财富。个体无意识主要由那些曾经被意识到但又因遗忘或压抑而从意识中消失的内容所构成的,而集体无意识的内容却从不在意识 中,因此从来不曾为单个人所独有,它的存在毫无例外地要经过遗传。个体无意识的绝大部分由‘情结’所组成,而集体无意识主要由‘原型’所组成。”
    编辑本段【集体无意识与原型批评的关系】
    1、艺术创作的心理动机不仅是以艺术家的个体发生史为基础,更重要的是以人类的种系发生史为宏大而坚实的基础。“艺术家以不倦的努力回溯于无意识的原始意 象,这恰恰为现代人的畸形化和片面化发展提供了最好的补偿。”艺术代表着民族和时代生活中的自我调节活动,它在对抗异化、维护人性完整的方面具有不可替代 的生态作用。
    2、神话的结构单位即存在于无意识心理中的原始意象或原型,文明人的理性发展使无意识完全被强大的意识所遮蔽和覆盖,只有当意识沉睡(梦)或因疾病而削弱 时(精神异常),集体无意识才能借原型的显现再度迸发出来。对于文明人来说,这种正常意识被打破的状态,恰恰相当于意识的原始状态,或者说回归到了原始人 的无意识自发思维状态。
    3、英国学者鲍特金(maud bodkin)在集体无意识与原型的关系上对荣格的理论进行了修正:人类情感的原型模式不是先天预成在个人的心理结构中的,而是借特殊的语言意象在诗人和 读者的心中重建起来的。所谓原型并不能看成是某种遗传信息的载体,同语言符号一样,它也是文化信息的载体形式。在重构人类情感经验方面,它有着不可替代的 作用。这即是一种社会性遗传。
    在美术批评上,体现在形象特征、形式结构、色彩关系上的民族、地域性特征是以社会性遗传的方式,循着民俗——工艺美术——民间美术——高级艺术的过程而积 淀下来的,高级艺术的形式结构已经高度理性化、个性化了,经过了漫长的、无数次的置换与变异,因此探索这种原型不是一个逻辑推理的过程,而是考据与实证的 过程。
    编辑本段【荣格与集体无意识学说】
    荣格的心理分析
    受动力和无意识对人类行为影响这种想法的吸引,荣格认为无意识包括了更多的弗洛伊德的压抑性冲动和攻击冲动的理论。荣格认为,无意识不仅是个人的而且是集 体的,来自一个共同发展历史的心理内部能量和形象界定了集体无意识,荣格对一般概念的象征模型----原始模型特别感兴趣。在这个模型中所有的人都有共同 点。
    荣格的心理分析--人格理论
    荣格人格概念的要点是联合的观点或整体观。对荣格来说,整体是以精神为代表,包括了全部的思想、感情和行为以及意识和无意识。个体为发展各自的整体而进行 的奋斗贯穿了他们的一生。荣格把自我视为整个人格的中心和全体。人格的另一面包括个体的态度以及他们心理活动的方式。退化和进步的概念表达式了这种能量的 运动。
    荣格的心理分析--意识水平
    在解释个体人格中时,荣格确认了意识的三个水平。灵魂、思想、精神的概念存在于意识的所有水平并且包括认知、情感和行为。意识水平仅是指个体能直接感知的 水平。从出生开始,它就不断地成长以致贯穿生命全程。随着年龄的成长,他们与其他人区别开来,这个过程荣格称之为“个体化”,随着个体意识的增长,他们也 发展了更强大的个体化,意识过程的中心是自我。自我指的是组织意识思想的方式,自我选择了知觉、思维、记忆和情感,这些将成为意识的东西。
    荣格的心理分析-- 个休无意识
    不被自我承认的经验、思想、情感以及知觉保存在个人的无意识中,个人的冲突、未解决的道德焦虑和充满感情的思想是个人无意识的一个重要部分,它们也是被压 抑的或是个人难以接受的。通常这些因素作为个人无意识的东西方出现在梦中,并且在梦的演出中扮演主动的角色。有时思想和感情是彼此互相联系的或代表一个主 题。这相关的资,当它对个休形成一个感情冲突时,则称之为“情结”。因为个休没有情结的意识,治疗师的目标是使情结成为意识。并不是所有的情结都是消极 的,一些情结也许是积极的。
    荣格的心理分析--集体无意识
    荣格的心理治疗理论概念与其他理论概念的最大区别在于集体无意识,“集体的”这一术语指的是所有人类共有的以及对人类有重要意义的资料,“集体无意识”指 的是“形成神话主题象征的一种人类思想的遗传倾向,这些象征是变化多端的但没有失去他们基本的模型。”荣格认为某些思想和观念的倾向是遗传的,集体无意识 的内容里包括本能和原型。本能是行为的推动力,原型是领会和构筑经验的方式。
    荣格的心理分析--原型
    原型不是经验,它的印象是经验。原型用原始的形象来表达。荣格认为原型的人格组合中最重要的是人、阿尼玛(男性的女性形象)阿尼姆斯(女性的男性形象)、 预兆和自我。在这此人格组合中,人是与人格日常功能最相关的原型,而自我原型是人格固有功能中最重要的一个。影子是潜在的最危险和最强有力的原型,代表了 与自我有意识的觉知差异最大的人格部分,影子里包括着不可接受的性冲动、动物性冲动和攻击冲动。荣格认为男人倾向于把他们自己的影子(否认和动物性情感) 投射到其他男人的身上,从而引起了男人之间不愉快的感情,女人将影子冲动地投射到其他女人身上,人的原型通过社会期待充当稳健之人,或者隐藏影子来表达自 身,更广义地说,影子能被两种性别投投射到许多客体上。尽管将这些影子描绘成一个消极的原型,影子也有积极的方面,影子的适当表达能作为创造力生命力和灵 感的源泉。然而如果影子被压抑,个体也许感到拘谨,感到与自身推动失去联系,同时感到害怕。对这样的个体,治疗的目标是帮助他们把影子引入意识中去。
    荣格的心理分析--象征
    原型是有形式而没有内容的形象。象征是内容也是原型的外部表现。原型仅通过出现在梦里、幻想、想象、传说、幻想故事、艺术等等的象征而被表现。用各种不同 方式表现的象征蕴涵着能应用于将来的人类智慧。荣格倾注了许多的努力来理解各种广泛的象征,而这些象征被发现在不同的文化中作为原型的典型。

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  • 0

    conhuso

    因为特殊原因在一起的一个称谓

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  • 0

    dyc369

    、群体的涵义和特征。
    群体作为社会学分析的具体单位,在社会学的先驱者那里,就已被列人研究的重要内容。但对群体作出明确的定义,还是本世纪初的事。美国社会学家阿尔比恩·W·斯莫尔在1905年将群体定义为“一大群或一小群的人,在期间所存在的关系使我们必须把他们作为整体来考虑。”①此后,人们认为这一定义过于宽泛,于是对群体的涵义又提出了各种各样的解释。我们认为,群体是人们通过某种社会关系联结起来,进行共同活动和感情交流的集体。它既同社会和个人相区别,又介于社会和个人之间,并且是联结二者的中介。
    群体大致有以下特征:
    1.有一定数量的社会成员。群体成员至少有两个人,这是构成群体的主体基础。在较大的群体中,还有一定的组织结构和一定的分工协作,并且有权威人物的存在.
    2.有一定的为群体成员所接受的目标。群体目标是群体功能的具体体现,也是组织的灵魂。没有目标的群体是不可能存在的。
    3.有明确的成员关系,并形成归属感。群体成员之间互相依赖,在心理和行为上互相影响,围绕群体目标开展活动,具有相对独特的互动方式。
    4.有一定的行为准则。群体规范有些是明文规定的,有些则是约定俗成的,它保证群体有秩序地、协调地开展活动。
    5.时间上具有一定的持续性。任何群体都是现实的社会实体,它不仅占有一定的空间位置,而且在时间上也具有一定的持续性。
    从群体的界定可以看到,群体和我们一般所讲的人群是不同的概念。在社会学研究中,人群通常是指那些偶发聚集体,也就是偶然地在同时间同一地方临时聚集起来的一群人,比如搭乘公共汽车的乘客。商店里购物的顾客、电影院里观看电影的观众、餐厅里就餐的食客等等。在这些人群的成员之间并不发生具有意义的社会互动,也没有共同的归属感,聚合的时间也十分短暂。因此他们不能算作群体。然而需要指出的是,即使是松散的人群,在一定条件下也会转化为我们所说的群体。比方说,公共汽车上突然有乘客晕倒,这时乘客们就可能会彼此交换意见,寻求救助的办法,这时这群人就有了一定的目标,出现了朝向这个目标的社会互动,于是就会形成实际的群体。
    我于1980年出生在美丽的西子湖畔。上中学时,老师和同学对我的评价是:看上去柔弱,但社会活动能力挺强。
    进人大学后,我参加了学校里一个与我所学专业有关的学生社团——法学会。刚入会的时候,我只是打打杂,跟着高年级同学的指挥棒转。我充分发挥自己的特长,从最基础、最琐碎的事情做起。写宣传海报,向系刊、校刊投稿,筹备学会活动,等等。学会交给我的每一件事,我都很认真、出色地去完成。于是,我获得了很好的人际关系,遇到什么难事,我只要一招手,便有同学采帮我。大二下学期,在大家的一致拥护下,我成为法学会会长。
    接手法学会的,学校正对学生社团采取优胜劣汰政策。带着压力,我和会员一起为法学会的生存和发展努力着。我们走出校门,与学校周围的居委会联系,在居民小区内设立了十几个法律信箱,定期开启,回答居民的法律问题;还不定期地到社区开展法律咨询,取得了很好的社会效果。
    我们法学会有一个王牌活动项目——“模拟法庭”。为了使这一活动上一个新台阶,我与会员们一起深人社会,到中学、乡镇、企业去普及法律知识,进行模拟法庭巡演。所到之处,反响强烈。媒体也对这一活动做了多次报道。功夫不负有心人。我主持的法学会被学校评为优秀甲级社团,并推荐为向币里申报的“明星社团”。
    回顾法学会的活动,我和我的同学们虽然都付出了很多,但同时也得到了很多的锻炼。这段经历,将令我们终身难忘。
    资料来源:摘编自祝蓓里、杠公卓主编:《爱与成长》,华东师范大学出版社2001年版。
    二、群体的类型
    作为人类基本活动形式的群体,有着纷繁复杂的类型。依据不同的标准,可以将群体划分为不同类别。有人曾作过统计,目前,对群体已经有近40种分类方法。下面介绍几种主要的分类方法和群体类型。
    (一)初级群体和次级群体
    初级群体和次级群体是以成员的互动关系特征为标准,而进行的一种群体分类,这是社会学群体研究中最经典的分类之一。
    初级群体又称作首属群体,是社会群体中最古老、最基本的形式,是个人参加社会生活的基础群体。如家庭、邻里、游戏伙伴等,都属于初级群体。初级群体概念是20世纪初由美国社会学家C·库利提出来的。他认为,个人总是从一些直接的、人数不多的、亲密的交往过程中形成最初的社会关系,由这些初级的社会关系联结起来的群体就是初级群体。初级群体具有规模较小、面对面交往、认同感强烈等特性。
    次级群体又称作次属群体,是用来表示与初级群体相对应的各种群体,如学校、职业群体、社团等。次级群体是人们为了达到一定的社会目的而建立起来的。一般说来,次级群体规模比初级群体要大,成员较多,有些成员之间不一定有直接的个人接触,群体内人们的联系往往通过一些中间环节来建立。次级群体既是个人步人社会所必须加人的群体,也是个人社会活动领域拓展和活动能力增强的标志。
    (二)正式群体和非正式群体
    正式群体和非正式群体是以群体的关系结构和组织功能为标准,而进行的一种群体分类。
    正式群体也就是社会组织,其具体内涵,将在下一章详细论述。
    非正式群体与正式群体不同,它不是由上级社会结构组织起来的,而是在成员个人倡议的基础上建立的。因此,一般说来,非正式群体是一种自发形成的、无正式组织结构、无正式章程的群体,如朋友群、游伴群等。非正式群体既存在于正式群体之外,也可以在正式群体内部形成。非正式群体的主要功能是满足个人工作之外的一些心理需要,个性特征、情境和共同兴趣,在构成非正式群体中起着重要作用。正是在这个意义上,有人又把非正式群体称作心理群体或兴趣群体。
    正式群体和非正式群体的概念,是在美国学者G·梅约于1927—1932年进行的著名的霍桑实验以后,才正式成为社会学的术语的。梅约研究发现,在企业中,在正式群体以外,还存在一种自发形成的群体。这种非正式组织起来的群体所产生的“社会舆论”,是每个成员的劳动态度的道德标准,对班组的团结。风气、绩效有着重要影响。
    (三)内群体和外群体
    内群体和外群体是以成员对群体的心理归属为标准,而进行的一种群体分类。
    内群体和外群体,又称作“我群”和“他群”。这两个概念是由萨姆纳在《民俗论》(1907年)一书中最先提出的。萨姆纳认为,根据成员对自己与群体关系密切程度的自我感觉以及对不同群体的态度,可以将群体分为内群体和外群体。凡是成员感到自己与群体关系密切,对群体有强烈归属感的,就是内群体。而那些由他人结合而成、与自己没有什么关系的群体,就属于外群体。内群体和外群体是通过“我们”和“他们”的群体界限来划分和定义的。这些群体界限,有的是有形的,如学校的校徽,就是一种群体界限符号。然而,更多的则是基于群体成员一种感情上的亲切和态度上的认同,这种认同促使成员之间亲密、团结、协调、台作。因此,内群体和外群体的研究,对于揭示社会伦理问题,有着更显著的意义。
    (四)成员群体和参照群体
    参照群体和成员群体是以群体成员的归属为标准,而进行的一种群体分类。
    成员群体也就是内群体,个人属于该群体的成员,并以本群体的规范作为自己活动的准则,各成员之间在行为上彼此互相影响。
    参照群体是指被某一群体成员用来作为某种参照对象并试图效法的群体。参照群体的概念是借用自然科学中的“参照系”一词演化而来的,有“目标”、“标准”的含义,所以也叫作“标准群体”或“榜样群体”。参照群体不是人们所属的群体,而是个人心目中想要加人或理想中的群体,它的价值观和规范体系常常是参照者个人的目标或标准。如大学生群体往往是那些想考人大学的高中生的参照群体;某个著名球队往往成为一些球迷的参照群体,等等。不同性质的参照群体有不同的特点,其权威性和影响力也不尽相同。一个人如果把一个或多个群体看作自己的参照群体,也就会自觉或不自觉地用参照群体的价值观和规范来对照自己行为,指导自己的行动。
    参照群体的概念,是由美国社会学家海曼提出的。后来,一些研究者把参照群体概念扩大到个人对自己的社会地位、行为和观点评价的标准等问题上。因此,参照群体既可以指个人所羡慕的群体或他曾是其成员的群体,也可以指他所属的群体;既可以指小群体,也可以指大群体。有的甚至具体的个人也可能充当参照群体的角色。
    (五)大群体和小群体
    大群体和小群体是以群体的规模为标准,而进行的一种群体分类。
    大群体一般指规模较大、人数较多、人员之间较少直接互动的群体。典型的大群体是如阶级群体这样的利益群体。这类群体人数众多,活动方式和组合形式有的超出了作为实体的群体范围,在其中甚至还可以划分出许多具有实体形式的群体。
    小群体则是指那些规模较小、成员之间能够直接互动的群体。小群体的主要特征是:成员间有面对面的联系,行为上相互作用、相互影响;成员在心理上彼此意识到对方,保持着直接的思想沟通;具有共同认可的群体规范。小群体研究在群体研究中占有重要地位。美国社会学者西奥多·M·米尔斯认为,小群体是更一般的社会系统,它不仅是微观系统,而且基本上是大社会的缩影。仔细研究这些微观系统,可以构架理论模型,然后应用到较难直接接触的社会中去,发展一般社会系统思考方法。
    群体除了上述分类之外,还可以按照形成的直接纽带分为血缘群体、地缘群体、业缘群体、志缘群体和趣缘群体;按照对社会的作用性质分为积极群体和消极群体,等等。同时,这些分类又互相交叉。因此,我们在对具体群体进行研究时,必须选择好分析的视角,并且注意不同类别群体之间的交互影响。
    三、初级群体
    (一)初级群体的涵义和特征
    初级群体作为由面对面的互动所形成的、具有亲密的人际关系的社会群体,在社会生活中具有重要的地位和作用。
    从总体上分析,初级群体具有以下特征:一是规模小。初级群体的规模一般在几人到十几个或二十几人之间,在小规模的群体里,成员之间进行着全面深人的交往。二是有长期的、经常的面对面互动。初级群体由于人数少,成员间可以直接交往而不需要中间环节,在直接的。面对面的交往中,成员之间对彼此的音容笑貌、行为举止都十分熟悉,从而增进了彼此的感情联系。三是成员的人格特征可以得到比较全面的表现,初级群体成员之间大都处于一种较为宽松的氛围,因此可以表现出比较全面的人格特征。四是成员之间的角色位置难以替代。在初级群体中,由于人们之间有着自然形成而非外部强加的角色关系,具有强烈的感情联系,所以在彼此的心目中都具有独特的地位,难以简单地替换。五是习惯、伦理道德和感情在维系群体中发挥着重要作用。初级群体一般不靠严格的规章、制度或法律等正式手段来维护,群体成员能够很好地处理相互关系,所依靠的是习惯,人们在初级群体中生活,通常感到比较自由,不太受拘束。
    (二)初级群体的类型
    1.家庭。家庭是最基本的初级群体。对于家庭的分析,我们将在第二节详细阐述。
    2.邻里。邻里是在地缘关系基础上结成的友好往来、守望相助的共同体。邻里既指左邻右舍几户人家,也指一个小村落或一个居民点等。在传统社会,邻里关系往往比较密切,“远亲不如近邻”就是这种现象的写照。现代社会由于商品经济的发展,人们的迁移频繁,加之高楼大厦的兴建,使邻里关系淡化。特别是在大城市的许多新区,传统的邻里形式已发生重大变化。但在农村或小城镇,邻里依然是十分重要的初级群体,发挥着重要的社会功能。
    3.伙伴群体。伙伴群体是指以性格、志向、兴趣、感情、个性等因素为纽带结合而成的一种非正式群体。这类群体对人的社会化,尤其是对于青少年世界观、人生观、价值观的形成,发挥着重要的影响作用。
    (三)现代社会中的初级群体
    现代社会,随着经济和社会生活的发展,初级群体的功能出现了衰退和外移的现象。人们参与初级群体活动越来越少,初级群体成员之间发生的联系减少,彼此的依赖程度降低,交往的时间缩短,造成初级群体成员间的关系变得松散。初级群体的这些变化,既有历史的进步意义,也带来了一些消极影响。这些消极影响突出表现在:对老年人的赡养与照顾问题;出现“破损家庭”中儿童的社会化问题;对人们的感情需要等方面带来的困难。在西方发达国家中,人们普遍存在孤独感,精神病患病率增长,酒精中毒与吸毒现象增多,社会上人情淡漠,等等,
    些社会不良现象的滋长,与初级群体的衰落有一定的联系。因此,一些社会学家呼吁,在现代化进程中,要加强初级群体建设,重视其功能的发挥。我国在现代化的进程中,也应该警惕这种现象的发生。

    08-11-15 | 添加评论 | 打赏

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  • 0

    lizhibao

    就一般平民而言具有相同兴趣爱好就可以组织了

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  • 0

    abcabb11

    核心群体一般包括公司创始人、风险投资者、以及值得大家信赖的人,在大公司中会存在数以百计的核心群体,个别能力强、有号召力、或掌握关键资源的人,也可能是核心群体中的一员。核心群体在公司内部具有超乎寻常的影响力,聪明的领导上任伊始就会明白:只有领导方式与核心的领导头等大事就是弄清公司各部门的核心群体。核心群体对任何公司来讲都是双刃剑;当产生心理学上讲的放大效应时,即核心群体的言论被传到公司各层面时,要比这一核心成员的本意力度更具强制性,正是由于核心群体的模棱两可;才会让员工感到核心群体的反复无常或缺乏创新;要让核心群体走上积极面而不是消极面,阿特.克莱纳有3个忠告:一是降低核心群体言论的失真度,二是平易近人;三是避免核心群体同质化——要让尽可能的人加入公司不同层面的核心群体。

    09-06-14 | 添加评论 | 打赏

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  • 0

    yyern2

    一、群体的涵义和特征。
    群体作为社会学分析的具体单位,在社会学的先驱者那里,就已被列人研究的重要内容。但对群体作出明确的定义,还是本世纪初的事。美国社会学家阿尔比恩·W·斯莫尔在1905年将群体定义为“一大群或一小群的人,在期间所存在的关系使我们必须把他们作为整体来考虑。”①此后,人们认为这一定义过于宽泛,于是对群体的涵义又提出了各种各样的解释。我们认为,群体是人们通过某种社会关系联结起来,进行共同活动和感情交流的集体。它既同社会和个人相区别,又介于社会和个人之间,并且是联结二者的中介。
    群体大致有以下特征:
    1.有一定数量的社会成员。群体成员至少有两个人,这是构成群体的主体基础。在较大的群体中,还有一定的组织结构和一定的分工协作,并且有权威人物的存在.
    2.有一定的为群体成员所接受的目标。群体目标是群体功能的具体体现,也是组织的灵魂。没有目标的群体是不可能存在的。
    3.有明确的成员关系,并形成归属感。群体成员之间互相依赖,在心理和行为上互相影响,围绕群体目标开展活动,具有相对独特的互动方式。
    4.有一定的行为准则。群体规范有些是明文规定的,有些则是约定俗成的,它保证群体有秩序地、协调地开展活动。
    5.时间上具有一定的持续性。任何群体都是现实的社会实体,它不仅占有一定的空间位置,而且在时间上也具有一定的持续性。
    从群体的界定可以看到,群体和我们一般所讲的人群是不同的概念。在社会学研究中,人群通常是指那些偶发聚集体,也就是偶然地在同时间同一地方临时聚集起来的一群人,比如搭乘公共汽车的乘客。商店里购物的顾客、电影院里观看电影的观众、餐厅里就餐的食客等等。在这些人群的成员之间并不发生具有意义的社会互动,也没有共同的归属感,聚合的时间也十分短暂。因此他们不能算作群体。然而需要指出的是,即使是松散的人群,在一定条件下也会转化为我们所说的群体。比方说,公共汽车上突然有乘客晕倒,这时乘客们就可能会彼此交换意见,寻求救助的办法,这时这群人就有了一定的目标,出现了朝向这个目标的社会互动,于是就会形成实际的群体。
    我于1980年出生在美丽的西子湖畔。上中学时,老师和同学对我的评价是:看上去柔弱,但社会活动能力挺强。
    进人大学后,我参加了学校里一个与我所学专业有关的学生社团——法学会。刚入会的时候,我只是打打杂,跟着高年级同学的指挥棒转。我充分发挥自己的特长,从最基础、最琐碎的事情做起。写宣传海报,向系刊、校刊投稿,筹备学会活动,等等。学会交给我的每一件事,我都很认真、出色地去完成。于是,我获得了很好的人际关系,遇到什么难事,我只要一招手,便有同学采帮我。大二下学期,在大家的一致拥护下,我成为法学会会长。
    接手法学会的,学校正对学生社团采取优胜劣汰政策。带着压力,我和会员一起为法学会的生存和发展努力着。我们走出校门,与学校周围的居委会联系,在居民小区内设立了十几个法律信箱,定期开启,回答居民的法律问题;还不定期地到社区开展法律咨询,取得了很好的社会效果。
    我们法学会有一个王牌活动项目——“模拟法庭”。为了使这一活动上一个新台阶,我与会员们一起深人社会,到中学、乡镇、企业去普及法律知识,进行模拟法庭巡演。所到之处,反响强烈。媒体也对这一活动做了多次报道。功夫不负有心人。我主持的法学会被学校评为优秀甲级社团,并推荐为向币里申报的“明星社团”。
    回顾法学会的活动,我和我的同学们虽然都付出了很多,但同时也得到了很多的锻炼。这段经历,将令我们终身难忘。
    资料来源:摘编自祝蓓里、杠公卓主编:《爱与成长》,华东师范大学出版社2001年版。
    二、群体的类型
    作为人类基本活动形式的群体,有着纷繁复杂的类型。依据不同的标准,可以将群体划分为不同类别。有人曾作过统计,目前,对群体已经有近40种分类方法。下面介绍几种主要的分类方法和群体类型。
    (一)初级群体和次级群体
    初级群体和次级群体是以成员的互动关系特征为标准,而进行的一种群体分类,这是社会学群体研究中最经典的分类之一。
    初级群体又称作首属群体,是社会群体中最古老、最基本的形式,是个人参加社会生活的基础群体。如家庭、邻里、游戏伙伴等,都属于初级群体。初级群体概念是20世纪初由美国社会学家C·库利提出来的。他认为,个人总是从一些直接的、人数不多的、亲密的交往过程中形成最初的社会关系,由这些初级的社会关系联结起来的群体就是初级群体。初级群体具有规模较小、面对面交往、认同感强烈等特性。
    次级群体又称作次属群体,是用来表示与初级群体相对应的各种群体,如学校、职业群体、社团等。次级群体是人们为了达到一定的社会目的而建立起来的。一般说来,次级群体规模比初级群体要大,成员较多,有些成员之间不一定有直接的个人接触,群体内人们的联系往往通过一些中间环节来建立。次级群体既是个人步人社会所必须加人的群体,也是个人社会活动领域拓展和活动能力增强的标志。
    (二)正式群体和非正式群体
    正式群体和非正式群体是以群体的关系结构和组织功能为标准,而进行的一种群体分类。
    正式群体也就是社会组织,其具体内涵,将在下一章详细论述。
    非正式群体与正式群体不同,它不是由上级社会结构组织起来的,而是在成员个人倡议的基础上建立的。因此,一般说来,非正式群体是一种自发形成的、无正式组织结构、无正式章程的群体,如朋友群、游伴群等。非正式群体既存在于正式群体之外,也可以在正式群体内部形成。非正式群体的主要功能是满足个人工作之外的一些心理需要,个性特征、情境和共同兴趣,在构成非正式群体中起着重要作用。正是在这个意义上,有人又把非正式群体称作心理群体或兴趣群体。
    正式群体和非正式群体的概念,是在美国学者G·梅约于1927—1932年进行的著名的霍桑实验以后,才正式成为社会学的术语的。梅约研究发现,在企业中,在正式群体以外,还存在一种自发形成的群体。这种非正式组织起来的群体所产生的“社会舆论”,是每个成员的劳动态度的道德标准,对班组的团结。风气、绩效有着重要影响。
    (三)内群体和外群体
    内群体和外群体是以成员对群体的心理归属为标准,而进行的一种群体分类。
    内群体和外群体,又称作“我群”和“他群”。这两个概念是由萨姆纳在《民俗论》(1907年)一书中最先提出的。萨姆纳认为,根据成员对自己与群体关系密切程度的自我感觉以及对不同群体的态度,可以将群体分为内群体和外群体。凡是成员感到自己与群体关系密切,对群体有强烈归属感的,就是内群体。而那些由他人结合而成、与自己没有什么关系的群体,就属于外群体。内群体和外群体是通过“我们”和“他们”的群体界限来划分和定义的。这些群体界限,有的是有形的,如学校的校徽,就是一种群体界限符号。然而,更多的则是基于群体成员一种感情上的亲切和态度上的认同,这种认同促使成员之间亲密、团结、协调、台作。因此,内群体和外群体的研究,对于揭示社会伦理问题,有着更显著的意义。
    (四)成员群体和参照群体
    参照群体和成员群体是以群体成员的归属为标准,而进行的一种群体分类。
    成员群体也就是内群体,个人属于该群体的成员,并以本群体的规范作为自己活动的准则,各成员之间在行为上彼此互相影响。
    参照群体是指被某一群体成员用来作为某种参照对象并试图效法的群体。参照群体的概念是借用自然科学中的“参照系”一词演化而来的,有“目标”、“标准”的含义,所以也叫作“标准群体”或“榜样群体”。参照群体不是人们所属的群体,而是个人心目中想要加人或理想中的群体,它的价值观和规范体系常常是参照者个人的目标或标准。如大学生群体往往是那些想考人大学的高中生的参照群体;某个著名球队往往成为一些球迷的参照群体,等等。不同性质的参照群体有不同的特点,其权威性和影响力也不尽相同。一个人如果把一个或多个群体看作自己的参照群体,也就会自觉或不自觉地用参照群体的价值观和规范来对照自己行为,指导自己的行动。
    参照群体的概念,是由美国社会学家海曼提出的。后来,一些研究者把参照群体概念扩大到个人对自己的社会地位、行为和观点评价的标准等问题上。因此,参照群体既可以指个人所羡慕的群体或他曾是其成员的群体,也可以指他所属的群体;既可以指小群体,也可以指大群体。有的甚至具体的个人也可能充当参照群体的角色。
    (五)大群体和小群体
    大群体和小群体是以群体的规模为标准,而进行的一种群体分类。
    大群体一般指规模较大、人数较多、人员之间较少直接互动的群体。典型的大群体是如阶级群体这样的利益群体。这类群体人数众多,活动方式和组合形式有的超出了作为实体的群体范围,在其中甚至还可以划分出许多具有实体形式的群体。
    小群体则是指那些规模较小、成员之间能够直接互动的群体。小群体的主要特征是:成员间有面对面的联系,行为上相互作用、相互影响;成员在心理上彼此意识到对方,保持着直接的思想沟通;具有共同认可的群体规范。小群体研究在群体研究中占有重要地位。美国社会学者西奥多·M·米尔斯认为,小群体是更一般的社会系统,它不仅是微观系统,而且基本上是大社会的缩影。仔细研究这些微观系统,可以构架理论模型,然后应用到较难直接接触的社会中去,发展一般社会系统思考方法。
    群体除了上述分类之外,还可以按照形成的直接纽带分为血缘群体、地缘群体、业缘群体、志缘群体和趣缘群体;按照对社会的作用性质分为积极群体和消极群体,等等。同时,这些分类又互相交叉。因此,我们在对具体群体进行研究时,必须选择好分析的视角,并且注意不同类别群体之间的交互影响。
    三、初级群体
    (一)初级群体的涵义和特征
    初级群体作为由面对面的互动所形成的、具有亲密的人际关系的社会群体,在社会生活中具有重要的地位和作用。
    从总体上分析,初级群体具有以下特征:一是规模小。初级群体的规模一般在几人到十几个或二十几人之间,在小规模的群体里,成员之间进行着全面深人的交往。二是有长期的、经常的面对面互动。初级群体由于人数少,成员间可以直接交往而不需要中间环节,在直接的。面对面的交往中,成员之间对彼此的音容笑貌、行为举止都十分熟悉,从而增进了彼此的感情联系。三是成员的人格特征可以得到比较全面的表现,初级群体成员之间大都处于一种较为宽松的氛围,因此可以表现出比较全面的人格特征。四是成员之间的角色位置难以替代。在初级群体中,由于人们之间有着自然形成而非外部强加的角色关系,具有强烈的感情联系,所以在彼此的心目中都具有独特的地位,难以简单地替换。五是习惯、伦理道德和感情在维系群体中发挥着重要作用。初级群体一般不靠严格的规章、制度或法律等正式手段来维护,群体成员能够很好地处理相互关系,所依靠的是习惯,人们在初级群体中生活,通常感到比较自由,不太受拘束。
    (二)初级群体的类型
    1.家庭。家庭是最基本的初级群体。对于家庭的分析,我们将在第二节详细阐述。
    2.邻里。邻里是在地缘关系基础上结成的友好往来、守望相助的共同体。邻里既指左邻右舍几户人家,也指一个小村落或一个居民点等。在传统社会,邻里关系往往比较密切,“远亲不如近邻”就是这种现象的写照。现代社会由于商品经济的发展,人们的迁移频繁,加之高楼大厦的兴建,使邻里关系淡化。特别是在大城市的许多新区,传统的邻里形式已发生重大变化。但在农村或小城镇,邻里依然是十分重要的初级群体,发挥着重要的社会功能。
    3.伙伴群体。伙伴群体是指以性格、志向、兴趣、感情、个性等因素为纽带结合而成的一种非正式群体。这类群体对人的社会化,尤其是对于青少年世界观、人生观、价值观的形成,发挥着重要的影响作用。
    (三)现代社会中的初级群体
    现代社会,随着经济和社会生活的发展,初级群体的功能出现了衰退和外移的现象。人们参与初级群体活动越来越少,初级群体成员之间发生的联系减少,彼此的依赖程度降低,交往的时间缩短,造成初级群体成员间的关系变得松散。初级群体的这些变化,既有历史的进步意义,也带来了一些消极影响。这些消极影响突出表现在:对老年人的赡养与照顾问题;出现“破损家庭”中儿童的社会化问题;对人们的感情需要等方面带来的困难。在西方发达国家中,人们普遍存在孤独感,精神病患病率增长,酒精中毒与吸毒现象增多,社会上人情淡漠,等等,
    些社会不良现象的滋长,与初级群体的衰落有一定的联系。因此,一些社会学家呼吁,在现代化进程中,要加强初级群体建设,重视其功能的发挥。我国在现代化的进程中,也应该警惕这种现象的发生。













    March 15, 1999 the Ninth National People's Congress adopted the second meeting of March 15, 1999 Decree of the President People's Republic of China announced its 15th since October 1, 1999 will come into effect)

            Contents
            General
            Chapter I General provisions
            Chapter II of the contract entered into
            Chapter III of the effectiveness of contract
            Chapter IV of the performance of the contract
            Chapter V of the change and transfer of contracts
            Chapter VI of the rights and obligations of the contract termination
            Chapter VII Liability
            Other provisions of Chapter VIII
            Sub -
            Chapter IX Sale
            Chapter X for electricity, water, gas, heat the contract
            Chapter XI grant contract
            Chapter XII loan contract
            Chapter XIII lease contract
            Chapter XIV finance lease contracts
            Chapter XV of the contract Forwarders
            Chapter XVI construction contract
            Chapter XVII the contract of carriage
            Chapter XVIII of the technical contract
            Chapter XIX custody contract
            Chapter 20th warehousing contract
            Chapter twenty-first commissioned by the contract
            Twenty-second chapter行纪合同
            Chapter twenty-brokered contract
            Supplementary Provisions
            General
            Chapter I General provisions
            First in order to protect the legitimate rights and interests of parties to the contract, the maintenance of socio-economic order, promoting the socialist modernization, the development of this law.
            The second equality of this alleged contract is the subject of natural persons, legal persons and other organizations to establish, change, termination of the relationship between civil rights and obligations of the agreement.
            Marriage, adoption, guardianship status of the relationship, the application of other laws.
            Third parties to the contract of the legal status of equality, one should not impose its will to the other.
            Article IV of the parties voluntarily entered into the contract are legally entitled to the rights of any unit or individual may illegally interfered with.
            Article V should be guided by the principle of equity the parties to determine the rights and obligations of the parties.
            Article VI of the parties to exercise their rights, meet their obligations should be guided by the principle of good faith.
            Article VII of the parties to enter into, carry out the contract, should abide by laws and administrative regulations, respect social morality must not disturb the socio-economic order, impair the social and public interests.
            Article VIII of the contract set up in accordance with the law, legally binding on the parties. Should be in accordance with the agreement the parties to fulfill their obligations, may change or cancel the contract.
            The establishment of the contract in accordance with the law, protected by law.
            Chapter II of the contract entered into
            Article IX parties enter into the contract, should have the corresponding ability of civil rights and civil capacity.
            Representations to the parties to a contract in accordance with the law.
            Article X of the parties to enter into contracts, in writing, oral and other forms.
            Laws and administrative regulations in written form, it should be in writing. The parties have agreed in writing, should be in writing.
            Article XI refers to the contract in writing, books, letters and data message (including telegram, telex, fax, electronic data interchange and e-mail) can be tangible, such as contained in the form of performance.
            Article XII of the contents of the contract agreed upon by the parties generally include the following provisions:
            (A) the names of the parties or the name and residence;
            (B) of the subject;
            (C) the number;
            (D) quality;
            (E) price or remuneration;
            (F) To fulfill the period, place and manner;
            (Vii) liability for breach of contract;
            (Viii) methods of dispute resolution.
            The parties can refer to the text of the different types of contracts entered into the contract model.
            Article XIII of the parties to enter into contracts, to take the offer, a commitment.
            Article XIV and others to offer the hope that the conclusion of the contract meant that the meaning that should meet the following requirements:
            (A) determine the specific content;
            (B) show that the commitment to withstand the offeror, the offeror that is bound by the meaning of that.
            Article XV of the offer is to invite others to offer their own meaning of that issue. Send the price list, auction notices, tenders, prospectus, commercial advertising, such as an invitation to submit offers.
            Commercial advertising in line with the provisions of the offer as an offer.
            Article XVI of an offer by the offeror arrived at the entry into force.
            Data message using the form of a contract, the recipient system to receive specific data message, the message data into the specific system time, as the arrival time; do not specify a particular system, the data message enters the recipient's of any system the first time, as the arrival time.
            Article XVII of an offer may be withdrawn. Notice of the offer should be withdrawn in the offer by the offeror prior to arrival or with the offer by the offeror arrived at the same time.
            Article XVIII of an offer may be revoked. Notice of revocation of the offer by the offeror should be notified to issue an undertaking by the offeror prior to arrival.
            Article XIX of the following circumstances, an offer may not be revoked:
            (A) the offeror or identified commitment period in order to offer other forms of explicit irrevocable;
            (B) the offeror has reason to believe that the offer is irrevocable and has made preparations to perform the contract.
            For the lucky bankers, and the offer lapsed:
            (A) notice of refusal of an offer to reach the offeror;
            (B) revocation of an offer to the offeror in accordance with the law;
            (C) commitment to the expiration of the period by the offeror did not make a commitment;
            (D) the acceptance of an offer by the offeror to make substantive changes to the content.
            Article twenty-first commitment is subject to the consent of the offer means an offer that.
            Twenty-second article of the commitment should be made to inform, but in accordance with customary trade or offer to show that the acts committed by the exception.
            Commitment should be the twenty-third article of the period identified in the offer to reach the offeror.
            Offer no commitment period, commitments should be arrived at in accordance with the following provisions:
            (A) an offer made through dialogue, it should be committed immediately, but, except otherwise agreed by the parties;
            (B) an offer made by a non-dialogue, and commitment should be to reach a reasonable period of time.
            The twenty-fourth of an offer to be made by letter or telegram, the commitment set out in the period from the date of the letter or telex issued to pay down. Did not contain the date of the letter, since the posting of the letter date of postmark. An offer by telephone, fax and other means of communication to quickly and commitment to the period since the arrival of an offer by the offeror at the beginning of the calculation.
            Article commitment to the establishment of the entry into force of the contract.
            Commitment to be the 26th man-hours notice of arrival of the entry into force of the offer. Commitment does not require notification, in accordance with customary trade or make a commitment to offer the requirements of the entry into force of the act.
            Data message using the form of a contract, and commitment to arrive at the time of this Law shall apply the provisions of Article XVI.
            Commitment can be withdrawn by the 27th article. Commitment to withdraw the notice should be notified in the commitment to reach the offeror before or at the same time and commitment to reach the offeror notice.
            Article twenty-eighth more than the commitment by the offeror issued the commitment period, in addition to promptly notify the offeror of the offeree are committed to the effective outside of the new offer.
            Twenty-ninth article in the commitment by the offeror issued the commitment period of time, usually the case in accordance with the timely arrival of the offeror, but due to other reasons, commitment to reach the offeror over the commitment period, in addition to promptly notify the offeror by the offeree is not a result of commitments over the period other than to accept the commitment, the commitment to effective.
            Commitment to the 30th article of the content should be consistent with the offer. The acceptance of an offer by the offeror to make substantive changes to the content of the new offer. The subject of the contract, the quantity, quality, price or remuneration, performance of the period, where and how the performance of, liability for breach of contract dispute resolution methods and the change is to offer the contents of the substantive changes.
           第三十一条commitment to the acceptance of an offer to make non-substantive changes in content, in addition to timely object to the offeror or an offer to show that the commitment not to offer any changes to the content of the outside, the commitment to effective, the contents of the contract to the content of the commitment, whichever is .
            Article thirty-second form of the contract the parties entered into the contract, since the signature or seal of both parties when the contract.
            Article thirty-third party use of the letter, data message, such as the contract form can be requested in the contract signed before the establishment of confirmation. When signing the contract confirmation.
            Commitment to the entry into force of the thirty-fourth article of the contract at the site.
            Data message using the form of a contract, and the recipient's principal place of business to set up the location of the contract; not the main place of business, its habitual residence to set up the location of the contract. Otherwise agreed by the parties and in accordance with their agreement.
            Article thirty-fifth book the form of the contract the parties entered into the contract, the parties to sign or seal the location of the sites set up for the contract.
            36th piece of legislation, administrative regulations or the parties have agreed that a contract be in writing, the parties have not adopted a written form but the main party has fulfilled its obligations, the other party to accept the contract.
            Article thirty-seventh form of the contract to enter into contracts, in the signature or seal, before the main party has fulfilled its obligations, the other party to accept the contract.
            Thirty-eighth state directive issued in accordance with the needs of the task or tasks of the national orders, the legal persons, other organizations should be in accordance with the relevant laws and administrative regulations of the rights and obligations of a contract.
            Format using the thirty-ninth article of the terms of a contract to provide the terms of the party format should follow the principle of equity between the parties to determine the rights and obligations, and to take reasonable way to draw attention from the other party or to limit its liability provisions, in accordance with the requirements of the other side, an explanation of the terms.
            Format is subject to the terms of re-use pre-prepared and not in the formation of contracts in consultation with the terms of each other.
            Terms shall have the format of the 52nd and 53rd of this Law stipulates that the case or the terms of the provision of one form from their responsibilities, adding to the other responsibilities, mainly the right to exclude each other, the null and void.
           第四十一条understanding of the terms of the format of the event of a dispute, should be interpreted in accordance with the generally understood. There are two provisions of the format explained above, should be made to provide the format is not conducive to the interpretation of the terms of the party. Non-format format of the terms and provisions of inconsistency, it should be a non-standard terms.
            Article forty parties entered into a contract in the course of one of the following situations result in the loss to the other side, shall bear the liability for damages:
            (A) under the guise of a contract, malicious conduct consultations;
            (B) enter into contracts with the deliberate concealment of important facts or provide false information;
            (C) any other breach of the principle of good faith.
            Article forty-third in the conclusion of the contract the parties aware of the process of trade secrets, regardless of whether or not the establishment of the contract shall not disclose or improperly use. Improper use or disclosure of trade secrets of the damage caused to the other side, shall bear the liability for damages.
            Chapter III of the effectiveness of contract
            The establishment of the forty-fourth article of the contract in accordance with the law, since the entry into force of the establishment.
            Laws and administrative regulations should apply for approval, registration and other procedures which came into force, in accordance with its provisions.
            45th Article of the validity of the contract the parties may agree to the conditions attached. Conditions attached to the entry into force of the contract, since the conditions of entry into force of the achievements. Conditions attached to the lifting of the contract, since the conditions of the achievements of failure.
            Parties for their own interests to prevent the improper conditions of success, as the conditions become on; improperly contributed to the conditions of success, as conditions are not achievements.
            46th Article of the validity of the contract the parties may agree the period is attached. Attached to the entry into force of the contract period, since the deadline to take effect session. Attached to the termination of the contract period, since the expiration of the period expired.
            Restricts the 47th person to enter into civil capacity of the contract, ratified by the legal representative, the contract effectively, but purely by the interests of the contract or their age, intelligence and mental health to adapt and make the contract, need not go through the statutory agent were ratified.
            Relative who can催告legal representative shall be ratified in a month. Legal representatives are not expressed as a refusal to ratify. Before the contract is ratified, the relative good people the right to withdraw. Notice of revocation should be made.
            Article forty-eighth did not act the right agent, beyond the right agent or proxy to be after the termination of the contract entered into on behalf of an agent, without ratification by the agent, the agent does not occur on the effectiveness of the responsibility by the perpetrator.
           催告relative who can be an agent shall be ratified in a month. Was not expressed by agents as a refusal to ratify. Before the contract is ratified, the relative good people the right to withdraw. Notice of revocation should be made.
            Not be acts of the 49th proxy, proxy, or beyond the termination of the Proxy to be an agent on behalf of the conclusion of the contract, the relative behavior of people who have reason to believe that there is the right agent, the agent acts effectively.
            50th Article of legal persons or other organizations, the legal representative, person in charge of ultra vires contract, with the exception of the relative who know or should have known outside of its ultra vires, the act effectively on behalf of.
           第五十一条no disciplinary powers of the person and property of others, or ratified by the people the right to free disposition of the person to enter into a contract after the disposition of, the contract effectively.
            Second article, one of the following circumstances, the contract null and void:
            (A) a party to fraud, coercion to enter into contracts, damage to national interests;
            (B) malicious collusion to harm the state, collectives or the interests of third parties;
            (C) the legal form in order to cover up the illegal purpose;
            (D) damage to public interests;
            (E) in violation of laws and administrative regulations of mandatory requirements.
            Fifty-third article of the contract null and void the following disclaimer:
            (A) personal injury caused by the other party;
            (B) gross negligence or intentional damage to property caused by the other side of.
            Fourth article the following contracts, a party the right to request to change the people's court or arbitration body, or revocation of:
            (A) made a major misunderstanding;
            (B) in the formation of contracts of unconscionability.
            Party to fraud, or coercion on others' insecurity, so that the true meaning of the other party in breach of contract cases, the injured party the right to request to change the people's court or arbitration body or repealed.
            Request to change the parties, the people's court or arbitration body shall not be revoked.
            Article Fifty-one of the following cases, the elimination of avoidance:
            (A) the parties have withdrawn from the right to know or should know the date of revocation of the subject within one year does not exercise the right to withdraw;
            (B) revoke the right to have the parties know that after the revocation of the subject made it clear that their actions or to give up the right to withdraw.
            56th article of the contract is invalid or revoked from the beginning of the contract are not legally binding. Part of the contract null and void, does not affect the effectiveness of other parts, other parts remain valid.
            Article 57th contract null and void, revoked or terminated, the contract does not affect the independent existence of the dispute resolution provisions of the effectiveness of methods.
            Fifty-eighth article or revoke the contract null and void after-acquired property of the contract and should be returned; can not return or there is no need to return, compensation should be discounted. The party at fault shall compensate each other, therefore the losses incurred by both sides at fault and should bear their respective responsibilities.
            Collusion of malicious parties at its fifty-ninth article, damage the state, collectives or the interests of a third person, so get all of the property would revert to the State or the return of the collective, the third person.
            Chapter IV of the performance of the contract
            Parties shall be in accordance with the 60th overall agreement to meet their obligations.
            The parties should be guided by the principle of good faith, according to the nature of the contract, used to carry out the purpose and notice of the transaction, assistance, confidentiality and other obligations.
            After the entry into force第六十一条contract, the parties on the quality, price or remuneration, there is no place to fulfill an agreement or an agreement is not clear, can be added the agreement; the supplemental agreement is not reached, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the contract or transaction to identify habits.
            Sixty-second article of the contract the parties agreed on is not clear,第六十一条in accordance with the provisions of this Act can not be identified, the following provisions apply:
            (A) the quality requirements are not clear, according to national standards, fulfill industry standards; no national standards, industry standards, in accordance with the normal standard in conformity with the contract or the purpose of fulfilling specific criteria.
            (B) price or remuneration is not clear, the conclusion of the contract in accordance with the performance to fulfill the market price; the government pricing should be implemented in accordance with the law or government指导价and perform in accordance with the regulations.
            (C) the place of performance is not clear, payment currency, the monetary side in the location of discharge; delivery of real estate, real estate is located in the discharge; other subject, in one location to fulfill their obligations.
            (D) To fulfill the period of uncertainty, the debtor can discharge, the creditors can also request to fulfill, but should be given the necessary time to prepare the other side.
            (E) carry out a clear way, according to the achievement of the purpose of discharging the contract.
            (Vi) to fulfill the burden of the cost of uncertainty, the burden from one party to fulfill their obligations.
            The implementation of the Government of the 63rd Article指导价pricing or government in the delivery of contractual price adjustment period when the Government, in accordance with the delivery price at the time of pricing. Late delivery of the subject matter, and when prices increase, the price according to the original implementation; prices fall, according to the implementation of the new price. Extraction of the subject matter of late payment or late, when prices, in accordance with the implementation of the new price; prices fall, according to the implementation of the original price.
            The parties have agreed that the 64th article from the debtor to a third person to perform their obligations, the debtor has failed to fulfill obligations to third parties to perform their obligations or do not meet agreed by the parties, should bear the liability for breach of contract to the creditor.
            The parties have agreed that the 65th article from the third person to perform their obligations to creditors, non-performance of third party debt or performance of an obligation inconsistent with the agreement, the debtor should bear the liability for breach of contract to the creditor.
            66th inter-party liability rules, there is no fulfillment of the order of succession should be at the same time to fulfill. Before discharge in the other party the right to refuse to fulfill its requirements. Side in each other's performance of an obligation inconsistent with the agreement, the right to refuse to fulfill the corresponding requirements.
            67th inter-party liability rules, it has to fulfill the order, failing to carry out party, and after the performance of either party the right to refuse to fulfill its requirements. To fulfill the debt is not a party to perform in line with the agreement, after the performance of either party the right to refuse to fulfill the corresponding requirements.
            68th should be the first person to perform their obligations, there are definite evidence that the other side, one of the following situations, you can suspend the performance of:
            (A) serious deterioration of operating conditions;
            (B) the transfer of property, capital flight in order to avoid debt;
            (C) loss of business reputation;
            (D) the loss or potential loss of ability to perform their obligations in other cases.
            No definite evidence of the parties to suspension of performance shall bear liability for breach of contract.
            Article 69th Article 68th party in accordance with the provisions of this Act to suspension of performance should be notified each other in a timely manner. When the other party to provide appropriate security, it should be the resumption of performance. After the suspension of performance, they are not in a reasonable period of time and did not resume the ability to provide appropriate security, to suspend the performance of the party can terminate the contract.
            Separation of the 70th Article of creditors, the merger or change without prior notice to the debtor's home, resulting in difficulties to fulfill the debt, the debtor may discharge or suspend the subject matter of movements.
           第七十一条creditors the debtor may refuse to perform their obligations in advance, but without prejudice to discharge in advance the interests of creditors other than the.
            The debtor to fulfill the debt to the creditor in advance to increase the cost burden from the debtor.
            Article seventy-second part of creditors, the debtor may refuse to discharge the debt, but some carry out without prejudice to the interests of creditors other than the.
            Partial fulfillment of the debtor's debt to the creditor to increase the cost burden from the debtor.
            Article seventy-debtor claims just an effect of the exercise of its maturity, to cause harm to creditors, creditors can request the People's Court on behalf of their subrogation claims of the debtor, the creditor's rights belong to the debtor other than their own.
            The exercise of the right of subrogation to the creditor's claim scope is limited. The subrogation right of creditors to exercise the necessary costs, the burden from the debtor.
            Article 74th due the debtor to give up their claims or free transfer of property, causing damage to creditors, creditors may request the People's Court revoked the acts of the debtor. The debtor is obviously unreasonable to low-cost transfer of property, damage to the creditors and the assignee knew of the situation, creditors may also ask the people's court revoke the debtor's acts.
            Revocation of the right to exercise the scope of the claims of creditors are limited. Creditors to exercise the right to withdraw the necessary costs, the burden from the debtor.
            The right to remove the 75th since the creditor knows or should know the subject revocation of one year from the date of exercise. Since the debtor's acts occurred within five years from the date it does not exercise the right to revoke, the revocation of the right to eradication.
            After the entry into force of Article 76th contract, the parties shall not name, name change or the legal representative, responsible person, the contractor's failure to perform contractual obligations change.
            Chapter V of the change and transfer of contracts
           第七十七条party consensus, can change the contract.
            Laws and administrative regulations should apply for approval to change the contract, registration and other formalities, in accordance with its provisions.
            78th article of the contract the parties agreed to change the contents of uncertainty, presumed to be unchanged.
            Article 79th creditors can contract the right to transfer all or part of a third person, but one of the following situations except:
            (A) the nature of the contract shall not be transferable;
            (B) The parties have agreed shall not be transferable;
            (C) in accordance with the law shall not be transferable.
            Transfer of the rights of creditors of the 80th article, it shall notify the debtor. Without notice, the transfer has no effect on the debtor.
            Notice of transfer of the rights of creditors shall not be revoked, but except for the consent of the assignee.
           第八十一条the transfer of the rights of creditors, the assignee and the claims made from the right, but the exclusive rights of creditors other than their own.
            82nd article claims the debtor received notification of the assignment, the debtor's defense of the grantor, you can claim against the assignee.
            Article 83rd claims received notification of the assignment, the debtor, the debtor claims to enjoy the grantor and the debtor's creditors before the transfer of the debt due or due at the same time, the debtor may claim set-off against the assignee.
            84th will be the debtor's obligations under the contract in whole or in part transferred to the third person, it should be agreed by the creditors.
           第八十五条obligations of the debtor transferred, the new debtor may claim the original creditor of the debtor's defenses.
            86th Article of the debtor's obligation to transfer, the new debtor should bear the main debt-related from the debt, but the debt from the debtor the exclusive preserve of the original except its own.
            87th piece of legislation and administrative regulations in the transfer of rights or obligations should apply for approval for the transfer, registration and other formalities, in accordance with its provisions.
            Article 88th party agreed to by the other party may be in the contract their rights and obligations be transferred to third parties.
            Article 89th together with the transfer of rights and obligations of this law are applicable to the 79th, the 83rd第八十一条to be第八十五条to the provisions of Article 87th.
            90th after the conclusion of the contract the parties be combined by the merger of legal persons and other organizations the right to exercise the contract, its obligations under the contract. Separation of the parties after the conclusion of the contract, except otherwise agreed by the creditors and debtors of the outside, by the separation of legal persons and other organizations on contractual rights and obligations of the enjoyment of several claims Gesamtschuld commitment.
            Chapter VI of the rights and obligations of the contract termination
            Article Ninety-one of the following cases, the termination of the rights and obligations of the contract:
            (A) the debt has to fulfill in accordance with the agreement;
            (B) the lifting of the contract;
            (C) debt offset each other;
            (D) the debtor will be the subject of deposit in accordance with the law;
            (E) creditors for debt relief;
            (Vi) debt claims attributable to a person;
            (Vii) the parties have agreed that the law or other circumstances of termination.
            Chosen to terminate the rights and obligations of the contract, the parties should be guided by the principle of good faith, used to carry out notification in accordance with the transaction, assistance, confidentiality and other obligations.
            Article party consensus, can terminate the contract.
            Side parties may agree to terminate the contract conditions. The achievements of the conditions to terminate the contract, can cancel the contract解除权.
            Article 94th of the following circumstances, the parties may terminate the contract:
            (A) the contract can not be achieved due to the result that the purpose of force majeure;
            (B) in the performance of the expiration of the period before the party made it clear that his behavior or that it does not carry out major debt;
            (C) a party to delay implementation of the main debt, after a reasonable period of time after催告have not been fulfilled;
            (D) a party to delay implementation of the debt or any other violation of the contract can not be achieved the result that purpose;
            (E) other circumstances stipulated by law.
            Be the 95th or the parties have agreed that the law解除权exercise period, the expiration of the period of the parties not to exercise the right to eradication.
            The law does not require the parties have not agreed or解除权exercise period, after催告by the other party a reasonable period of time not to exercise, the elimination of the right.
            Article 96th party 93rd article in accordance with this law, the provisions of Article 94th to terminate the contract that should inform the other party. Since the arrival of the contract to inform each other when lifting. Is disputed by the other party may request the people's court or arbitration body to confirm the validity of rescission.
            Laws and administrative regulations should apply for approval to terminate the contract, registration and other formalities, in accordance with its provisions.
            After the lifting of Article contract has not been carried out to terminate the discharge; has been performed, according to the nature of the implementation of the contract, the parties may request restitution and take other remedial measures, and the right to ask for damages.
            98th Article of the rights and obligations of the termination of the contract, the contract does not affect the terms of settlement and the effectiveness of clean-up.
            Negative第九十九条debts among the parties, the subject matter of the types of debt, the quality of the same, any party can be its own debt and the debt offset each other, but in accordance with the law or the nature of the contract shall not be offset in accordance with the exception of.
            Offset by the parties that should inform the other party. Since the arrival of the other party when notice of the entry into force. Offset shall not be conditional or time limit attached.
            Article 100th liability among the parties, the subject matter of the type, quality is not the same, by mutual consensus, can also be offset.
            Article 1 of the following situations, it is difficult to perform their obligations, the debtor may be subject matter of movements:
            (A) unjustified refusal to take delivery of creditors;
            (B) unknown creditors;
            (C) undetermined heirs or creditors of the death of the loss of capacity for civil conduct undetermined guardian;
            (D) other circumstances stipulated by law.
            Subject matter not suitable for holding or holding costs, and the debtor in accordance with the law can be the subject of the auction or sale, the proceeds of the price movements.
            The subject matter of Article 2 after the picture of the movements, with the exception of missing the creditor, the debtor shall promptly notify the creditor or the creditor's heirs, guardians.
            The subject matter of Article three movements, the destruction, the risk of loss borne by the creditors. Holding period, the yield to the subject matter of all creditors. Expense of the creditors holding the burden.
            Article 4 of creditors holding at any time to receive, but the creditor has a debt of the debtor and the creditor is not in debt or provide guarantees to fulfill before holding departments should be in accordance with the requirements of the debtor to refuse to receive material movements.
            Creditors holding the rights to receive, since the holding five years from the date of the exercise is not eliminated, the cost picture of the movements were deducted after the deposit to the state.
            Article 5 of creditors from the debtor of some or all of the debt, the rights and obligations of the contract some or all of the termination.
            Article 6 claims and liabilities attributable to a person with, the rights and obligations of the contract termination, but the interests of a third person involved, except.
            Chapter VII Liability
            Article 7 is not a party to fulfill its obligations under the contract or agreement do not meet contractual obligations, and should take to continue to carry out, or take remedial measures, such as liability for breach of contract damages.
            Article 8, or a party made it clear that their actions in order to show that its obligations under the contract, the other can be requested before the expiration of the period to fulfill its commitment to liability for breach of contract.
            Article 9 is not a party to pay the price or remuneration, the other party may require payment of the price or remuneration.
            Article is not a party or non-monetary obligations to fulfill the performance of non-monetary obligations inconsistent with the agreement, the other party may request to fulfill, but one of the following situations except:
            (A) the legal or de facto unable to perform;
            (B) the subject of debt unfit to fulfill the cost of performance or too high;
            (C) a reasonable period of time the creditor is not required to perform.
            Quality in line with the 111th article of the agreement, the agreement should be in accordance with the parties to bear liability for breach of contract. There is no agreement on liability for breach of contract or agreement is not clear,第六十一条in accordance with the provisions of this Act can not be identified, the injured party in accordance with the nature of the subject, as well as the size of losses, it is reasonable to assume the other party the option of requesting repair, replace, redo, retired goods, reduce the price or remuneration, such as liability for breach of contract.
            Article 112th party to its obligations under the contract or not in conformity with its obligations under the contract agreement, or in fulfilling their obligations to take remedial measures, the other side there are other losses, damages should be.
            Article 113th party to its obligations under the contract or not in conformity with its obligations under the contract agreed by the parties, to the other losses, and damages for breach of contract should be equal to the losses caused by, including the performance of the contract after the interests of access, but no more than breach of contract when a party to a contract should be foreseen or foreseeable result of a breach of contract may result in losses.
            Operators to provide consumers with goods or services fraud, in accordance with the "People's Republic of China Consumer Protection Law," to assume responsibility for damages.
            114th party to the agreement the parties may be breach of contract should be based on breach of contract to the other party to pay a certain amount of liquidated damages can be agreed damages for breach of contract resulting from the calculation of the amount.
            Lower than the agreed liquidated damages for loss caused by, the parties may request the people's court or arbitration body to increase it; the agreed liquidated damages for loss caused by too much higher than that, the parties may request the people's court or arbitration body to be reduced appropriately.
            The parties to fulfill a contractual breach on the delay in payment, breach of contract after the payment of liquidated damages, it should be default.
            Be the 115th person in accordance with the "People's Republic of China Guarantee Law," the other side agreed to pay a deposit as security claims. The debtor defaults, the deposit should be for the purchase price or withdraw arrived. To pay a deposit of one party does not fulfill a contractual debt, and the right to request the return of the deposit; receive a party to the deposit of non-performing debt agreement, it should be double the return of the deposit.
            Article 116th both parties agreed liquidated damages, and the deposit agreement, a party defaults, the other party may choose to apply the provisions of liquidated damages or earnest money.
            Can not be the 117th performance of the contract due to force majeure, according to the impact of force majeure, some or all of exemption from responsibility, but except as otherwise provided in law. Delay performance of the parties after the event of force majeure, and is not relieved of responsibility.
            This alleged force majeure is not foreseeable, can not avoid the objective situation can not overcome.
            Article 118th party is unable to perform the contract due to force majeure, it shall promptly notify the other party in order to reduce possible losses caused to the other side, and should provide a reasonable period of time.
            Article 119th party after default, the other party should take appropriate measures to prevent the expansion of the loss; did not take appropriate measures to expand resulting in the loss, and shall not seek compensation for the loss of the expansion.
            To prevent the loss of clients due to the expansion of the reasonable costs incurred by the default party.
            Article 120th breach of contract, both parties should assume their responsibilities.
            Article 121st third party who caused the breach of contract and breach of contract should bear the responsibility to each other. And third-party dispute between, in accordance with the law or in accordance with the agreed solution.
            Article 122nd breach a party against the other person, property rights and interests, the injured party the right to choose in accordance with this law require or assume liability for breach of contract in accordance with other legal requirements of their commitment to tort liability.
            Other provisions of Chapter VIII
            Article one hundred and twenty other laws as otherwise provided in the contract, in accordance with its provisions.
            124th Article of this Law or other laws, sub-there is no express provision of the contract, the provisions of this Law shall apply general principles, and can refer to this sub-rule or the most similar to other legal requirements.
            Be the 125th person on the understanding of the terms of the contract dispute, it should be used in accordance with the contract terms, the relevant provisions of the contract, the purpose of the contract, trading habits, as well as the principle of good faith to determine the true meaning of the clause.
            The use of two or more contracts entered into and the agreed text has the same effect on the text used in the meaning of words and phrases have the same presumption. Words and phrases used in the text are inconsistent and should be in accordance with the purpose of contract interpretation.
            126th article of foreign-related contract may choose to deal with contractual disputes, the applicable law, but except as otherwise provided in law. Foreign-related contracts the parties have no choice, and apply the most closely linked to the contract law of the country.
            In the People's Republic of China Sino-foreign joint ventures to fulfill the contract, contract Chinese-foreign cooperative enterprises, Sino-foreign cooperative exploration and development of natural resources contracts, applicable laws.
            Article 127th of industrial and commercial administration departments and other relevant administrative departments in their respective mandates, in accordance with the law and administrative regulations on the use of contract against the national interests, social public interests of the offense, responsible for overseeing the processing; constitute crime, be held criminally responsible.
            Be the 128th person through reconciliation or mediation to resolve contract disputes.
           Chapter XIII lease contract
            Article 212th lessor will lease contract is the delivery of tenant leasehold use, revenue, contract the lessee to pay rent.
            213th article of the lease contract will include the name of leasehold, quantity, use, lease, rent and payment terms and the way the terms of the lease and maintenance materials.
            Article 214th lease period must not exceed two decades. For more than two decades, more than some invalid.
            The expiration of the lease period, the parties may renew the lease contract, but agreed to renew the lease period from the date of no more than two decades.
            215th article of the lease period of more than six months, it should be in writing. The parties have not adopted a written form, as from time to time lease.
            216th article should be in accordance with the agreement the lessor to the lessee leasehold delivery and maintain the lease during the lease agreement in line with the use of materials.
            Lessee of the 217th Article of the method should be used in accordance with the agreed leasehold. On the use of leasehold agreement or no agreement is not clear, in accordance with the provisions of this Act第六十一条can not be identified, it should be in accordance with the nature of the use of leasehold.
            218th Article of the lessee in accordance with the agreed method or the nature of the use of leasehold leasehold, with the result that by the loss of a leasehold does not assume liability for damage.
            219th article of the agreement the lessee is not in accordance with the method or the nature of the use of leasehold leasehold, resulting in loss of lease, the lessor may terminate the contract and for damages.
            Article 220th lessor shall carry out the maintenance of leasehold obligations, except otherwise agreed by the parties.
            Article 221st lessees were in need of repair in the lease when the lessor may require maintenance of a reasonable period of time. Did not perform the maintenance obligations of the lessor and the lessee can repair, maintenance costs, the burden from the lessor. The impact of lease structures for maintenance of the lessee to use, it should be a corresponding reduction in rent or to extend the lease term.
            Article 222nd lease the lessee should be kept under safe custody matter, the leasehold保管不善damage caused, the loss should bear the liability for damages.
            Article 223rd lessee by the lessor agreed to make improvements to the leasehold or additional他物.
            The lessee without the lessor's consent, to leasehold improvements or additional他物, the lessor may require the lessee or restitution for damages.
            Article 224th lessee agreed to by the lessor, the lease may be sublet to a third party objects. Sublease of the lessee, the lessee and lessor of the lease contract between the continue to be valid, a third loss of the leasehold, the lessee should be liable for damages.
            Sublet without the consent of the lessee of the lessor, the lessor may terminate the contract.
            During the 225th article in the lease because of the possession, use of lease proceeds were received, to the lessee, but, except otherwise agreed by the parties.
            The lessee shall, in accordance with the 226th article of the period agreed to pay rent. There is no agreement on the payment period or agreement is not clear, in accordance with the provisions of this Act第六十一条still not sure, leasing period of less than one year should be paid upon the expiry of the lease period; more than one year lease period, it should be in each of the expiration of a year to pay the remaining period of less than one year should be paid upon the expiry of the lease period.
            Article 227th lessee or unjustified delay in payment of unpaid rent, the lessor may require the lessee to pay a reasonable period of time. Failure of the lessee to pay, the lessor may terminate the contract.
            Article 228th advocate the rights of third parties, resulting in complex lease the lessee can not use the proceeds of the lessee may be required to reduce non-payment of rent or rent.
            Advocate the rights of a third person, the lessee shall promptly notify the lessor.
            Article 229th leasehold ownership in the lease during the changes will not affect the validity of the lease contract.
            Article 230th betrayed lessor of rental housing should be sold out within a reasonable time period before the notice of the lessee, the lessee to enjoy the same conditions to give priority to the purchase rights.
            231st article can not be attributable to the lessee because of the subject, with the result that some or all of leasehold damage, loss and the lessee may be required to reduce non-payment of rent or rent; due to lease some or all of material damage, loss, which can not be to achieve the purpose of the contract, the lessee can cancel the contract.
            Article 232nd period the parties have not agreed on the lease or agreement is not clear,第六十一条in accordance with the provisions of this Act can not be determined from time to time as a lease. The parties may terminate the contract at any time, but the lessor to terminate the contract should be notified in a reasonable period of time prior to the lessee.
            233rd article of the lease the lessee endanger safety or health, even when the lessee entered into the contract knowing that the quality of the leasehold failed, the lessee can cancel the contract at any time.
            Article 234th rental period the lessee's death, instead of his people can live together in accordance with the lease of the housing原租赁合同.
            Article 235th lease the expiration of the period, the lessee should be the return of leasehold. The return of materials should be in accordance with the lease agreement or lease in accordance with the nature of the state after use.
            Article 236th lease the expiration of the period, the lessee continue to use the leasehold, the lessor has raised no objection, the原租赁合同remain in force from time to time but the period of the lease.
            Chapter XIV finance lease contracts
            Article 237th finance lease contract is the lessee of the lessor in accordance with the seller, lease options, lease to purchase the seller to provide to the lessee the use of the contract the lessee to pay rent.
            Article 238th finance lease contracts include the leasehold title, quantity, specification, technical performance, test methods, lease period, rent and its duration and manner of payment, currency, expiry of lease period the ownership of objects, such as lease terms .
            Financial lease contract shall be in writing.
            Lessee of the lessor under the 239th Article of the seller, lease options were entered into a contract for the sale, the seller should be in accordance with the agreed upon delivery to the subject matter of the lessee, the lessee to enjoy the subject matter and the receipt of the buyer rights.
            Article 240th lessor, the seller, the lessee may agree, the seller does not fulfill obligations under a contract for the sale by the lessee to exercise the right to claim. Claims to exercise the rights of the lessee, the lessor should assist.
            Article 241st lessee to the lessor in accordance with the seller, lease options were entered into a contract for the sale, the lessee without the consent of the lessor and the lessee shall not change the contents of the contract.
            Article 242nd lessor of a leasehold title to enjoy. Bankruptcy of the lessee, leasehold property does not belong to bankruptcy.
            243rd article of finance lease rental contract, with the exception of the outside otherwise agreed by the parties, shall, in accordance with the purchase of leasehold costs, as well as most or all of the lessor to determine a reasonable profit.
            Article 244th lease agreement were not in conformity with the purpose of or inconsistent with the use of, the lessor is not liable, but the lessee to rely on the skills of the lessor or the lessor to determine leasehold leasehold intervention except selection.
            The lessor should ensure that the 245th article of the lease the lessee possession and use of materials.
            Article 246th leasehold possession of the lessee, the lease under which the third person's personal injury or property damage, the lessor is not liable.
            247th lessee should be kept under safe custody, the use of leasehold.
            Possession of the lessee shall carry out the repairs during the lease obligations.
            248th article should be in accordance with the agreement the lessee to pay rent.催告by the lessee after a reasonable period of time not to pay rent, the lessor may be required to pay the full rent; can also cancel the contract, to recover the leasehold.
            Article 249th period the parties have agreed that the expiration of the lease to the lessee of all leasehold, the lessee has paid most of the rent, but can not afford to pay the remaining rent, the lessor to terminate the contract, therefore objects to recover the lease, the lease to recover more than the value of the lease who owed rent and other costs, the lessee may request the return of part.
            Article 250th lessor and lessee may agree lease expiry of the lease period the ownership of objects. The attribution of the leasehold agreement have not agreed or is not clear, in accordance with the provisions of this Act第六十一条can not be identified, leasehold ownership of the lessor.
            Chapter XV of the contract Forwarders
            Forwarding contract is the 251st article承揽人completed in accordance with the requirements of定作人work, delivery of the results of the work contract定作人pay compensation.
            Agents, including processing, is scheduled to make, repair, replication, testing, inspection and so on.
            Article 252nd forwarding the contents of the contract, including the subject of contract, the quantity, quality, remuneration, contract means the provision of materials to fulfill the period, such as acceptance of the terms of the standards and methods.
            253rd承揽人should be in their own equipment, technology and labor to complete the major work, but, except otherwise agreed by the parties.
            Forwarders承揽人its major work completed by the third person, should be completed on the third person to定作人responsible for the results of the work;定作人without consent,定作人can also cancel the contract.
            Article 254th承揽人can support the work of its contract by the completion of a third person. Forwarders承揽人support its work completed by the third person, should be completed on the third person to定作人responsible for the results of the work.
           承揽人255th article of the provision of materials,承揽人materials should be selected in accordance with the agreement and accept the inspection定作人.
           定作人256th article of the provision of materials,定作人materials should be provided in accordance with the agreement.承揽人on information provided by the定作人should be tested in time, when found not complying with the agreement, it should be replaced promptly notify定作人, filled, or take other remedial measures.
           承揽人not allowed to replace the information provided by the定作人not replace the parts do not need repair.
            Article定作人257th承揽人found to provide the technical requirements of the drawings or unreasonable, it should be duly informed定作人. Reply定作人just an effect due to causes such as loss of承揽人, it should be for damages.
            Article 258th定作人way to change the requirements of the work contract, resulting in the loss of承揽人, it should be for damages.
            Agents need to be the work of the 259th定作人assistance to assist定作人obligations.定作人a result, non-performance of contract obligations to assist the work can not be completed,催告定作人can承揽人a reasonable period of time to fulfill their obligations, and the period can be extended to fulfill;定作人failure to perform,承揽人can cancel the contract.
            In the 260th article承揽人work, should receive the necessary supervision, inspection and定作人. Supervision, Inspection and定作人shall not impede the normal operation of承揽人.
            Article承揽人261st to complete its work, it should be delivered to the定作人the results of the work and submit the necessary technical information and the quality of proof.定作人acceptance of the results of the work should be.
            262nd承揽人be the results of the work to deliver quality does not meet the requirements of定作人may be required to bear承揽人repair, redo, reduce the remuneration, such as liability for breach of contract damages.
            Article定作人263rd in accordance with the agreed time limit should be paid. The deadline for payment of compensation is not agreed or agreed upon is not clear, in accordance with the provisions of this Act第六十一条can not be identified,定作人should be delivered in the results of the work承揽人pay; part of the delivery of the results of the work, should be a corresponding定作人payment.
            264th定作人not be paid to the承揽人price or materials, etc.,承揽人on the results of the work completed to enjoy a lien, but, except otherwise agreed by the parties.
            Article承揽人265th定作人should provide safe custody of materials, as well as the results of the work completed,保管不善caused by damage, loss, and shall bear the liability for damages.
            Article承揽人266th定作人should be in accordance with the requirements of confidentiality, without定作人will be allowed to retain copies of, or technical information.
           承揽人267th article of the common定作人are jointly and severally liable, but, except otherwise agreed by the parties.
            Article 268th contract lifting定作人the contract at any time, resulting in the loss of承揽人, it should be for damages.
            Chapter XVI construction contract
            Article 269th construction contract is to carry out construction projects contractor, contract to pay the contract price.
            Construction contract, including engineering survey, design, construction contract.
            270th construction contract shall be in writing.
            Article 271st bidding construction activities, should be in accordance with the provisions of relevant laws and open, fair and just conduct.
            272nd contract can be the general contractor and construction contract entered into, nor can people with the investigation, design, and construction to enter into the investigation, design and construction contracts. Contract shall not be completed by a contractor of the construction project into several parts of dismembered awarded to several contractors.
            General contractor or the investigation, design, construction contractors who agree by contract, the contractor can be part of their work completed by the third person. Third person to complete the work on its results and the general contractor or the investigation, design, construction contractor to the contract who are jointly and severally liable. Contractor can not be all the construction projects contracted to third parties, or subcontract to the contractor after all the construction projects in order to dismember the name of the sub-subcontract to a third person, respectively.
            Prohibition of the works sub-contractor does not have the appropriate qualifications to the conditions of the unit. The prohibition of sub-units of its sub-contractor of the project. Construction of the main structure of the construction must be completed by the contractor on its own.
            Article 273rd contracts for major national construction projects should be provided in accordance with national procedures and approved by the state investment plan, feasibility study report and other documents entered into.
            Article 274th survey and design contracts include the basis of the relevant information and documents (including any budget) period, the quality requirements, cost and other conditions of the terms of collaboration.
            Article 275th construction contract scope includes engineering, construction period, the middle of hand over a completed project start and completion of the project time, project quality, project cost, technical information delivery time, materials and equipment suppliers responsibility, funding and settlement of final acceptance, the quality of the scope and quality assurance warranty period, the terms of mutual collaboration.
            Article 276th supervision of the implementation of construction projects, contracting and supervision should be in written form were entered into a contract commissioned by the Commissioner. Contract with the Commissioner of the rights and obligations and legal responsibilities should be entrusted to the contract in accordance with this Law and other relevant laws and administrative regulations.
            Article 277th contract without prejudice to the contractor in the case of normal operation, you can progress at any time of the operation, quality inspection.
            Article 278th concealed in hidden before the project, the contractor shall notify the person to inspect the contract. Contract had not checked in time, the contractor could be delayed for a project date, and is entitled to compensation for lay-off, such as loss of窝工.
            Article 279th construction projects, the contract should be in accordance with construction drawings and specifications issued by the construction of national norms and the quality of acceptance in time for acceptance test. Qualified acceptance, the contract should be in accordance with the agreement to pay the price, and to receive the construction project. Construction project after the completion of the experience of qualified admission before delivery; without acceptance or unqualified acceptance, may not be delivered.
            Article 280th survey and design quality do not meet the requirements or not in accordance with the deadline for submission of investigation, delays in project design documents, resulting in a loss of contract and survey, and design should continue to improve the investigation, design, reduce or waive the investigation, design fees and damages.
            Article 281st construction led to the building of the reasons people do not meet the quality of the project agreement, the contract shall have the right to work in a reasonable period of time free of charge repair or rework, alterations. After rework or repair, alteration, the result of late delivery, construction should bear the liability for breach of contract.
            Article 282nd reasons contractor construction projects resulting in a reasonable period of time caused by the use of personal and property damage, the contractor should bear the liability for damages.
            Not be the 283rd person in accordance with the agreed contract time and request for materials, equipment, facilities, funds, technical information, contractors can be delayed for a project date, and is entitled to compensation for lay-off, such as loss of窝工.
            284th Article of the reasons people contract resulted in the middle of the construction project, postponed, the contract should take measures to offset or reduce the losses, damages resulting suspension contractor,窝工,倒运, machinery and equipment transfers, backlog of materials and components and the actual cost of such losses.
            Be the 285th person to change plans because of contract to provide inaccurate information, or not in accordance with the deadline to provide the necessary survey and design of working conditions resulting from the investigation, design rework, work stoppages or modify the design, contracting should be in accordance with the survey who design were the work of the actual consumption of pay increments.
            Article 286th contract did not pay the price in accordance with the agreement, the contractor can contract催告in a reasonable period of time to pay the price. Contract payments were overdue, except in accordance with the nature of construction projects should not be discounted, the auction, the contractor agreement with the works contract discount, but also the people's court may apply for the auction of the works in accordance with the law. Construction of the price or discount on the project priority for repayment of the auction price.
            287th article of this chapter does not provide for forwarding the relevant provisions of the contract.
            Chapter XVII the contract of carriage
            Section I General provisions
            Article 288th contract carrier will transport passengers or cargo transport from the originating location to the agreed location, passengers ticketed through the shipper or the consignee to pay shipping costs or contracts.
            289th Article of the public transport carrier may not refuse passengers, usually the shipper, reasonable transportation.
            The carrier should be the 290th in the agreement during a reasonable period of time, or passengers, the safe transport of goods to the agreed location.
            Article 291st carrier or agreement shall, in accordance with the usual line of passenger transport, cargo transport to the agreed location.
            Article 292nd passengers, or the shipper or the consignee should be ticketed through to pay transportation costs. The carrier is not in accordance with the agreed route or routes are usually ticketed through increased transport costs or transport of passengers, the shipper or the consignee may refuse to pay part of the increase in transportation costs or ticketed through.
            Section II passenger contract
            293rd contract passenger carrier to deliver tickets to visitors to set up, but otherwise agreed by the parties or otherwise, except for customary trading.
            Article 294th passengers should be transported by holders of valid tickets. Win free tickets by passengers, by Yun-Chao Cheng, leapfrog by transportation or transported by holders of expired tickets, it should be ticketed through the back, the carrier can be charged in accordance with the provisions of ticketed through. Passengers ticketed through the non-delivery, the carrier may refuse to transport.
            Article 295th passengers can not be due to the reasons for their own records in accordance with the ticket by the time, it should be in the agreed period of time or change the procedures for a refund. Late handled, not to reclaim the carrier can be ticketed through, and no longer bear the transportation obligations.
            296th article in the transport of passengers should be limited in accordance with the agreement to carry luggage. More than limited luggage should be checked for clearance.
            297th article or visitors are not allowed to carry luggage entrainment in flammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, radioactive, as well as means of transport is likely to endanger the safety of persons and property on the dangerous goods or other prohibited items.
            Passengers in violation of the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the carrier would be prohibited items can be unloaded, destroyed or sent to the relevant departments. Insist on carrying passengers or entrainment of prohibited items, the carrier shall refuse to transport.
            The carrier should be the 298th in time to inform the passenger transport can not be normal and safe transport of important subject matters should be noted.
            Article 299th ticket states the carrier should be in accordance with the time and frequency of passenger transport. Delay carrier transport should be arranged in accordance with the requirements of passengers switch to other flights or a refund.
            300th unauthorized carrier change rules to reduce public transport and service standards should be in accordance with the requirements of passengers ticketed through the reduction or refund; to improve service standards should not be ticketed through extra.
            Zero-300th of a carrier in the transport process, should make every effort to help with illness, childbirth, the passengers in distress.
            The carrier should be the 300th for two years and transit passengers to assume liability for damage of casualties, but the casualties were passengers of their own health or cause the carrier to prove intentional injuries visitors, except for gross negligence caused.
            In the preceding paragraph shall apply in accordance with the provisions of Free, who votes in favor or permit the carrier to take passengers non-votes.
            Three years and the 300th in transit passengers bring their own items damaged, lost, the carrier is at fault and should bear the liability for damages.
            Passenger checked baggage damage, loss, and the application of the relevant provisions of the Carriage of Goods.
            Section III cargo contract
            Be the 304th for the Carriage of Goods by the shipper, the carrier should be accurate to indicate the name or the name of the consignee or the consignee with the instructions, the name of goods, nature, weight, quantity, place of receipt of the goods transport, etc. necessary.
            The shipper to declare a result of false or omitted important information, resulting in the loss of the carrier, the shipper should bear the liability for damages.
            Five years and the 300th for the Carriage of Goods by the need for approval, testing and other procedures, the shipper should be finished for the formalities of the carrier paper.
            Six years and the 300th should be in accordance with the agreement of the shipper packed the goods way. There is no agreement on the packaging or the agreement is not clear, the application of the provisions of this Act be the 156th.
            Violates the above provisions of the shipper, the carrier may refuse to transport.
            Article 307th consignment shipper flammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, radioactive or other dangerous items should be in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Transport of Dangerous Goods on proper packaging of dangerous goods, hazardous materials to make signs and labels, and will be the name of the dangerous goods, the nature and preventive measures of the written materials submitted by the carrier.
            Violates the above provisions of the shipper, the carrier may refuse to transport, can also take appropriate measures to avoid the occurrence of losses, resulting in costs borne by the shipper.
            308th will be in the carrier before delivery of the goods the consignee, the shipper may request the suspension of the carrier transport, the return of goods, or to change the arrival to the consignee of goods to the other, but it should be compensation for the loss of the carrier being .
            Article 309th arrived in the carriage of goods, the carrier know that the consignee shall promptly notify the consignee, the consignee should be a timely delivery. Late delivery of the consignee, the carrier should be paid to the custodial fees and other expenses.
            Article 310th consignee should be in accordance with the agreed delivery period to examine the goods. Period of examination of goods is not an agreement or an agreement is not clear,第六十一条in accordance with the provisions of this Act can not be identified, should examine the goods within a reasonable period of time. Consignee at the agreed time limit or a reasonable period of time the number of goods, damage such as that no objection is raised, and as a carrier transport document has been recorded in accordance with the prima facie evidence of delivery.
            311th Article of the carrier to transport cargo damage, loss assume liability for damage, but damage to the carrier to prove the goods, the loss was due to force majeure, the natural nature of the goods themselves or reasonable wear and tear, as well as the shipper, the consignee caused by the fault, do not assume liability for damage.
            312th Article of the damaged goods, loss of the amount of compensation agreed by the parties, in accordance with its agreement; there is no agreement or an agreement is not clear,第六十一条in accordance with the provisions of this Act can not be identified, should be delivered in accordance with the delivery or When the goods arrive to the market prices. Laws and administrative regulations on the amount of compensation is calculated and the maximum amount of compensation otherwise provided, in accordance with its provisions.
            313th article of two or more modes of transport the carrier to transport the same, and the conclusion of the contract with the carrier the shipper should bear full responsibility for transport. Loss occurred in a transport section, a contract with the shipper and the carrier section of the carrier are jointly and severally liable.
            Article 314th of goods during transport loss due to force majeure, no freight charge, the carrier shall not require the payment of freight; has charged freight, the shipper may request the return.
            Article 315th shipper or the consignee of non-payment of freight, storage and other transportation costs, the carrier for the transport of goods corresponding to enjoy a lien, but, except otherwise agreed by the parties.
            Article 316th unknown or consignee consignee refused to take delivery of goods without justification, in accordance with the provisions of this Article 1, the carrier can deposit the goods.
            Section IV of the multimodal transport contract
            Be the 317th performance of the multimodal transport operator or organizations responsible for implementation of the multimodal transport contract, the carrier for the full enjoyment of the right to transport, to assume the obligations of the carrier.
            318th article with the multimodal transport operator to participate in inter-modal sections of the carrier on the multimodal transport contract agreement sections of the responsibility for each other, but the agreement does not affect the multimodal transport operator for the whole transportation obligations.
            Article 319th received the multimodal transport operator, the shipper of the cargo delivery, the multimodal transport document should be issued. In accordance with the requirements of the shipper, the multimodal transport document may be negotiable, but also can be non-negotiable documents.
            Article 320th shipper cargo shippers fault caused the loss of the multimodal transport operator, even if the shipper has been the transfer of the multimodal transport document, the shipper should bear the damage is still liability.
            Article 321st damaged goods, the loss occurred in the transport section of a multimodal transport and multimodal transport operator's liability and the liability limit applicable to adjust the mode of transport in the relevant section of the law. Cargo damage, loss occurred in the transport section can not be ascertained, in accordance with the provisions of this chapter assume liability for damage.
            Chapter XVIII of the technical contract
            Section I General provisions
            Technical contract is the 322nd person on technology development, transfer, consulting or services entered into between the establishment of mutual rights and obligations of the contract.
            Article 323rd technology contracts entered into, it should be conducive to progress in science and technology to accelerate the transformation of scientific and technological achievements, application and promotion.
            324th Technical content of the contract agreed upon by the parties generally include the following provisions:
            (A) Project name;
            (B) the content of the subject, scope and requirements;
            (C) carry out the plan, progress, duration, location, geographical and methods;
            (D) technical information and confidentiality of information;
            (E) the risk of responsibility;
            (Vi) technological achievements and benefits of ownership of the divided approach;
            (Vii) acceptance standards and methods;
            (Viii) the purchase price, remuneration or fees and the payment method;
            (I) liquidated damages or the method of calculating damages;
            (J) dispute resolution methods;
            (Xi) the interpretation of terms and terminology.
            Performance of the contract and the related technical background information, feasibility study and technical evaluation reports, project tasks and plan books, technical standards, technical specifications, design and technology of the original document, as well as other technical documentation, in accordance with the agreement of the parties as a group contract into a part of.
            Technology contract involving a patent, it should be marked with the name of inventions, patent applicants and patent holders, the date of application, application number, patent number, and the validity of patents.
            325th Technical contract price, compensation or payment charges agreed upon by the parties, you can finally take a lump-sum or a finally, payment, royalty payments can be taken or additional pre-paid royalty payment of entry fees方式.
            Agreed to pay royalty to the price in accordance with the implementation of patents and secret use of technology after the addition of value, profit, or a certain percentage of sales commission, in accordance with the agreement can also be calculated in other ways. The ratio of royalty payments can take a fixed percentage, on a yearly basis or decreasing the ratio of proportion.
            Royalty payment agreement, the parties agreed in the contract should have access to the accounting approach.
            Article 326th positions of the right to use the technology, the transfer of the right to a legal person or other organizations, legal persons or other organizations can post on the technical achievements made by the technical contract. Legal persons and other organizations should be from the use and transfer of technological achievements of the post made to extract a certain percentage of the proceeds to complete the duties of the individual technological achievements to reward or remuneration. Legal persons and other organizations to make technology transfer office technology contract, the duties of the completion of technological achievements in order to enjoy the same priority to the transferee the right conditions.
            Post the results of the implementation of technical legal persons and other organizations the work of the task, or is the use of legal persons or other organizations to complete the material and technical conditions of the technological achievements.
            327th article of a non-service technology use rights, the right to belong to completion of the transfer of technological achievements of individuals, the completion of technical results can be of personal technology on the outcome of the non-service contract entered into technology.
            Be the 328th person to complete the technical results of the technical results in the document stated that he is the completion of technology and access to the rights certificate, the right incentives.
            Be the 329th illegal monopoly technology, impede technological progress and technological achievements of others or against the technology contract is null and void.
            Section II technology development contract
            Technical development of the 330th is the Contract between the parties on the new technology, new products, new processes or new materials and systems research and development contract entered into.
            Technology development contracts include commissioned development contracts and development contracts.
            Technology development should be in writing contracts.
            Between the parties on the value of industrial applications with the implementation of scientific and technological achievements into a contract, in the light of technological development provisions of the contract.
            Article 331st client commissioned the development of the contract should be paid in accordance with the agreed funding for research and development and remuneration; to provide technical information, raw data; complete cooperation matters; to accept the results of research and development.
            Article 332nd commissioned the development of contract research and development agreement should be in accordance with the formulation and implementation of research and development programs; rational use of research and development costs; research and development work completed on schedule, the delivery of research and development results, to provide relevant technical information and necessary technical guidance to help clients grasp the results of research and development.
            Article 333rd client in violation of the agreed research and development work resulted in stagnation, delay or failure shall bear liability for breach of contract.
            Research and development be the 334th person who contravenes an agreement research and development work resulted in stagnation, delay or failure shall bear liability for breach of contract.
            335th Article of the parties to develop the contract agreement should be carried out in accordance with the investment, including investment in technology; the division of labor involved in research and development work; collaboration with the research and development work.
            Cooperation in the development of the 336th Article of the parties in violation of the agreed contract research and development work resulted in stagnation, delay or failure shall bear liability for breach of contract.
            Article 337th as a technology development contract has been the subject of technology in public by others, resulting in technology development is not the meaning of the performance of the contract, the parties may terminate the contract.
            Be the 338th performance of the contract in the technology development process, because of insurmountable technical difficulties, resulting in the failure of research and development or partial failure, the risk of liability agreed upon by the parties. There is no agreement or an agreement is not clear,第六十一条in accordance with the provisions of this Act can not be identified, the risk sharing of responsibility by the parties.
            Found a party in the preceding paragraph the provisions of the research and development could result in failure or partial failure of the case should promptly notify the other party and to take appropriate measures to reduce losses. Failure to make timely notification and take appropriate measures, resulting in loss of expansion should be on the expansion of the loss of responsibility.
            Commissioned the development of the completion of the 339th article of the invention, in addition to the outside otherwise agreed by the parties to apply for a patent belongs to the research and development of human rights. Research and development of patents obtained, a client can implement the patent free of charge.
            Research and development to transfer the right of patent application, entitled to the same conditions as the principal priority of the rights of the transferee.
            Completion of the 340th article of the invention to develop and create, in addition to the outside otherwise agreed by the parties, the right to apply for a patent belongs to the parties to develop a total of. A total of a party to transfer its right to the patent application, other parties to the same conditions to enjoy the priority right to the transferee.
            To develop a party to renounce its right to total patent applications, and can be applied for by the other party or joint application by other parties. Applicants to obtain patents, patent applications to give up the right side to implement the patent free of charge.
            To develop a party does not agree to apply for a patent, the other party or other parties shall not apply for a patent.
            Be entrusted to the development of the 341st or the technology to develop secret the results of the completion of the right to use the right to transfer, as well as the distribution of interests, agreed upon by the parties. There is no agreement or an agreement is not clear,第六十一条in accordance with the provisions of this Act can not be identified, the parties have the right to use and transfer, but the development of research and development commissioned person shall deliver to the client before the results of research and development, will study the the development of the outcome of the transfer to a third party.
            Section III of technology transfer contracts
            Article 342nd franchise contract includes the transfer of technology transfer, the transfer of patent rights, technology transfer secret, patent license contract.
           Technology transfer contract shall be in writing.
            Article 343rd grantor technology transfer contract and the assignee may agree to implement a secret patent or the scope of the use of technology, but not limit the technical competition and technology development.
            Article 344th patent license contract only for the duration of the patent is valid. The expiration of patent validity or patent was declared invalid, the patentee shall not be made in respect of patents and other patent license contract.
            345th franchised grantor of the license contract should be in accordance with the license agreement the patent assignee, the delivery of patent-related technical information, provide the necessary technical guidance.
            Article 346th patent licensing contract shall, in accordance with the assignee of the patent agreement, the agreement shall not permit a third person other than the implementation of the patent; and in accordance with the agreement to pay royalties.
            Article 347th secret transfer of technology contract should be in accordance with the agreement of the grantor to provide technical information, technical guidance, and ensure the usefulness of technology, reliability, obligation of confidentiality.
            348th Technical secret assignee of the contract of assignment should be in accordance with the agreed use of technology, to pay user fees, obligation of confidentiality.
            349th Article of the grantor the transfer of technology contract should ensure that their technology is provided by the legitimate owners, and to ensure the technical integrity, accurate, effective, to achieve agreed objectives.
            350th Article of the assignee of technology transfer contract shall, in accordance with the scope and duration of the agreement, the grantor of the technology to provide an open secret that has not been part of obligation of confidentiality.
            351st not be the grantor of the transfer of technology in accordance with the agreement, it should be the return of some or all of user fees, and shall bear the liability for breach of contract; the implementation of secret patent or the use of technology beyond the scope of the agreement, in violation of an agreement to implement a third party without authorization license the patent or the use of the technology secret, it should be cessation of the breach, to assume liability for breach of contract; violation of the confidentiality obligations of the agreement shall bear liability for breach of contract.
            Article 352nd assignee does not pay royalties in accordance with the agreement and should pay the tolls in arrears and in accordance with the agreement to pay liquidated damages; do not pay the tolls in arrears or pay liquidated damages, and should stop the use of the patent or technology secrets, to return technical information, to assume liability for breach of contract; the implementation of secret patent or the use of technology beyond the scope of the agreement, the grantor without the consent of a third party without authorization permits the implementation of the patent or the use of the technology secret, it should be cessation of the breach, to assume liability for breach of contract; violation obligation of confidentiality agreement, and shall bear the liability for breach of contract.
            Article 353rd patent assignee in accordance with the agreement, the use of technology in secret against the legitimate rights and interests of others, by the grantor to assume responsibility, but, except otherwise agreed by the parties.
            354th Article of the parties in accordance with the principle of mutual benefit, in the technology transfer agreed in the contract of the patent, the use of technology to improve the follow-up of secret sharing approach to technology. There is no agreement or an agreement is not clear,第六十一条in accordance with the provisions of this Act can not be identified, one of the technology to improve the outcome of the follow-up, other parties have no right to share.
            Article 355th laws and administrative regulations on technology import and export contracts or patents, patent applications as otherwise provided in the contract, in accordance with its provisions.
            Section IV of technology consulting contract and technical services contract
            Article 356th contract includes technical advice on specific technical projects feasibility study, technology forecasting, the topic of technical investigations, analysis and evaluation report on the contract.
            Technical service contract refers to a party to the other technical knowledge to solve specific technical problems of the contract entered into, does not include construction contracts and contract agents.
            357th Technical consulting contract should be in accordance with the agreement of the client to clarify the issue of consultation, to provide technical background material and related technical information and data; accept the results of the work of the trustee to pay compensation.
            358th Technical consulting contract should be in accordance with the agreement of the trustees of the report or the completion of the consultation period to answer questions; the consultation report should be made to meet the requirements of the agreement.
            359th Technical consulting contract is not in accordance with the agreement of the client to provide the necessary information and data, the impact of the work progress and quality, do not accept the results of the work or acceptance of late payment of compensation shall not be recovered, not to pay compensation should be paid .
            Technical consulting contract did not schedule a trustee or advisory report of the advisory report is not consistent with the agreement, should bear the reduction or waiver of liability for breach of contract remuneration.
            Technical advice of the client contract in line with the agreement in accordance with the requirements of the Trustee Advisory report and the comments made by the decision-making caused by the loss of commitment by the client, but, except otherwise agreed by the parties.
            Technical 360th client service contracts should be provided in accordance with the agreed conditions of work, completed with the matter; to accept the results of the work and pay compensation.
            361st Technical service contracts should be in accordance with the agreement of the trustee to complete service projects, solving technical problems and ensure the quality of work, and to impart knowledge to solve technical problems.
            Technical 362nd client service contract its obligations under the contract or not in conformity with its obligations under the contract agreed by the parties, the impact of the work progress and quality, do not accept the results of the work or acceptance of late payment of compensation shall not be recovered, no compensation should be paid payment.
            The trustees of the technical service contract is not completed in accordance with the contract services should be free to assume liability for breach of contract remuneration.
            Article 363rd technical consulting contract, technical services to fulfill the contract, the trustee for the technical use of client information and the completion of the working conditions of the new technological achievements, are the trustees. Clients use the results of the work completed by the trustees of the new technological achievements, are the principal. Otherwise agreed by the parties and in accordance with their agreement.
            Article 364th laws and administrative regulations on the technical intermediary contracts, technical training as otherwise provided in the contract, in accordance with its provisions.
            Chapter XIX custody contract
            Contract is the 365th article custodians custody custody custody of the person depositing them were delivered, and the return of the objects of the contract.
            Storage should be the 366th person to pay to the depositary in accordance with the agreed fee.
            The parties have not agreed on the fee or agreement is not clear, in accordance with the provisions of this Act第六十一条can not be identified, free of custody.
            Be the 367th since the custody of the custody of the contract were set up to deliver, but, except otherwise agreed by the parties.
            Article 368th storage delivery to the custodian of custody of materials, custodians custody certificate should be paid, but otherwise, except for customary trading.
            Article 369th custodian objects should be kept safe custody.
            Place the custody of the parties may agree or methods. Except in emergencies or in order to safeguard the interests of outside storage, are not allowed to change the place or method of custody.
            Be hosting the 370th person to the custody of the defective materials or materials in accordance with the custody of the nature of the custody of the need to take special measures, and storage should be informed of the custodian. Storage did not inform, which were affected by the loss of custody, the custodian does not assume liability for damages; custodian who suffer a loss, therefore, with the exception of the custodian knew or should have known and failed to take remedial measures, the damage to the person depositing them shall bear the liability.
            Be custodian of the 371st material may not be handed over to the custody of the custody of a third person, but, except otherwise agreed by the parties.
            Custodian in violation of the provisions of the preceding paragraph, will be handed over to the custody of a third person were keeping, and loss of custody of objects, and should assume responsibility for damages.
            Article 372nd custodian may not use or permit the use of custody of a third material, but, except otherwise agreed by the parties.
            Article III of the 373rd were advocating the rights of custody, except in accordance with the law were taken to the custody or preservation of implementation, the custodian should perform to the person depositing them to the obligation to return the custody matter.
            Third party proceedings against the custodian or to apply for custody of seized material, the custodian should promptly notify the person depositing them.
            During the custody of the 374th section, as custodian of custody of material damage caused by保管不善, loss, and the custodian shall bear the liability for damages, but free of custody, the custodian to prove that there is no gross negligence, do not assume liability for damage .
            Storage 375th article to the person depositing them money, securities or other valuables should be a statement to the custodian, or sealed by the custodian of acceptance. Not a statement to the person depositing them, the items damaged, lost, the custodian can be compensated in accordance with the general items.
            Storage can be the 376th person to receive the custody of materials at any time.
            The parties have not agreed on the custody agreement or unclear, the custodian can request to receive the custody matter to the person depositing them; custody agreement, the custodian no special reason, shall not be required to obtain custody of the person depositing them in advance material.
            The expiration of the period kept the 377th article or custody of the person depositing them in advance to receive materials, custodians should be returned to the original and its yield to the person depositing them.
            Custodian of the custody of the 378th Article of the currency, you can return the same type, the number of currencies. Custody of other alternatives may be the same type of return in accordance with the agreement, quality, number of items.
            Custody of the 379th Article of the contract fee, the person depositing them the duration of the agreement should be in accordance with the payment of fee to the custodian.
            Period the parties have not agreed to pay or agree to is not clear,第六十一条in accordance with the provisions of this Act can not be identified, it should be in the custody of objects at the same time to receive payment.
            380th article to the person depositing them in accordance with the agreement not to pay custodial fees and other costs, were enjoyed by the custodian of the custody of a lien, but, except otherwise agreed by the parties.
            Chapter 20th warehousing contract
            Article 381st custodian contract warehousing storage warehousing inventory objects were delivered, inventory storage contract payment.
            Article 382nd warehouse when the contract came into effect since its inception.
            Article 383rd storage of flammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, radioactive, dangerous goods or perishable goods, the inventory should be the nature of the goods, the provision of relevant information.
            A person who contravenes the provisions of the inventory in the preceding paragraph, the custodian may refuse storage objects, and corresponding measures can be taken in order to avoid the occurrence of losses, resulting in costs borne by the inventory.
            Custodian of the storage of flammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, radioactive and other dangerous goods, should have custody of the appropriate conditions.
            Article 384th custodian agreement should be in accordance with the objects of the storage warehouse for inspection. Custodian found acceptance warehouse storage structures do not conform with the agreement, who shall promptly notify the inventory. Custodian after acceptance, the occurrence of varieties of storage objects, the quantity, quality is not consistent with the agreement, the custodian shall bear the liability for damages.
            Be the 385th person to warehouse inventory objects, custodians warehouse receipts should be paid.
            Custodian of the 386th article in the warehouse receipts should be signed or sealed. Warehouse receipts, including the following:
             (A) the name of the stock or the name and residence;
             (B) storage complex species, quantity, quality, packaging, and tag number;
             (C) the loss of storage material standards;
             (D) storage sites;
             (E) during storage;
             (Vi) storage;
             (Vii) storage materials has been for insurance, the insurance amount, period, as well as the name of the insurer;
             (H) filling fat people, fat and filled date filling.
            Extraction of warehouse receipts is the 387th article of the certificate storage structures. Warehouse receipts or inventory in the warehouse receipt holder of the endorsement by the custodian of the seal or signature, you can transfer the right to extract materials storage.
            Custodian under the 388th article or stock holders of the requirements of warehouse receipts, should be agreed to check the storage of its materials or samples.
            Custodian of the 389th Article of the storage warehouse were found to have deterioration or other damage, shall promptly notify the inventory or warehouse receipt holders.
            Custodian of the 390th Article of the storage warehouse were found to have deterioration or other damage, endanger the safety of other storage materials and normal custody should be催告inventory or warehouse receipts holders to make the necessary disposal. Due to the urgency of the situation, the custodian can be disposed of to make the necessary, but afterwards should be promptly notified of the inventory or warehouse receipt holders.
            Article 391st parties have not agreed on during storage or agreed not to clear inventory or warehouse receipt holders can extract material storage, the custodian can also be prepared to ask the stock holders of warehouse receipts, or extraction of material storage, but it should be give the necessary time to prepare.
            Article 392nd store the expiration of the period, inventory or warehouse receipt holders of warehouse receipts should be extracted with the storage material. Warehouse receipts or inventory holders extracted overdue and should be additional storage; extracted in advance, not a reduction in storage.
            Article 393rd save the expiration of the period, inventory or warehouse receipt holder does not extract materials storage, the custodian can催告a reasonable period of time in the extraction, extraction overdue, custodians can deposit material storage.
            Article 394th during storage, as custodian保管不善material damage caused by storage, loss, the custodian shall bear the liability for damages. Because of the nature of warehousing, packaging do not meet or exceed the agreed storage period resulted in an effective storage material deterioration, damage, and the custodian does not assume liability for damage.
            395th article of this chapter does not provide for the custody of the relevant provisions of the contract.
            Chapter twenty-first commissioned by the contract
            Article commissioned by the 396th contract is agreed the client and the trustee by the trustee to deal with client matters of contract.
            397th client can be commissioned to deal with a trustee or a number of affairs, it can be summed up to deal with all matters entrusted to the trustees.
            398th client should be entrusted to deal with pre-paid services. Commissioned by the trustees to deal with the need to advance the cost of services, the client should reimburse the costs and interest.
            Article 399th trustee shall, in accordance with the instructions of a client to entrust matters to deal with. Clients need to change directions, it should be agreed by the client; due to the urgency of the situation, it is difficult to get in touch and principals, and trustees should be entrusted to properly handle, but the situation should be promptly after the report of the client.
            Article 400th trustees commissioned services should be dealt with personally. After the client agreed that the trustee can be commissioned. Agreed to commission, clients can commission services on the direct instructions of the third person entrusted to the trustee the selection of only the third person and its impact on the instructions of a third party responsibility. To commission without the consent of the trustee should be appointed to the conduct of a third person responsible, but in case of emergency trustee to safeguard the interests of the client to change except for commissioned.
            Zero-400th of a trustee shall, in accordance with the requirements of clients, the report commissioned to deal with the situation of affairs. Commissioned at the time of termination, the Trustee shall report the results of commissioned services.
            Zero to two 400th trustee on behalf of their own in the client's mandate, with a third person to enter into the contract, the third person to know in the formation of contracts between the trustee and the client agency relationship, the contract directly bound by a client and a third person, but there are definite evidence that the contract binds only the trustee and third persons, except.
            400th of zero to three trustees in their own name with a third person to enter into contract, the third person did not know the trustees and the agency relationship between the client and the trustee of the reasons for the third person does not fulfill its obligations to clients, trustee should be disclosed to a third party client, the client can be the trustee of the exercise of the rights of third parties, but the third person to enter into contracts with the trustees know that the client when a contract would not have otherwise.
            Trustee because of the principal reasons for non-performance of third party obligations, the trustee should disclose to a third client, third party trustee or so clients can choose to argue that as a relative of their rights, but the third one shall change the election relative who is scheduled.
            The principal trustee of the exercise of the rights of a third person, third person may apply to the client to assert their defenses to the trustee. Selected third party clients as part of its relative, the client can claim a third of the trustees and the trustees of the defense of the defense of a third person.
            Trustees of the 404th Article of the property entrusted to the Panel made, it should be transferred to the client.
            The completion of five years and the 400th trustees commissioned services, the client should be paid to him. Because the trustee can not be attributable to the subject, commissioned by the lifting of the contract can not be completed or commissioned services, the client should be corresponding to the trustee to pay compensation. Otherwise agreed by the parties and in accordance with their agreement.
            Six years and the 400th of the commission paid the contract, due to the fault of the trustee for any losses caused to the client, the client can ask for damages. The commission free contract, as trustee of the gross negligence or intentional damage caused to the client, the client can ask for damages.
            Beyond the competence of trustees to cause the loss of clients, it should be for damages.
            Article 407th Trustees commissioned affairs, due to non-attributable to their loss of reason, you can seek compensation for losses to the client.
            Article 408th client agreed to by the trustee, the trustee can deal with a third person outside the commission entrusted affairs. Therefore result in the loss to the trustee, the trustee can seek compensation for losses to the client.
            409th article of two or more trustees jointly commissioned to deal with affairs of the client are jointly and severally liable.
            410th trustee can be a client or commissioned by the lifting of the contract at any time. To terminate the contract due to damage caused to the other side, with the exception of can not be attributable to reasons other than the parties should be liable for damages.
            Article 411th client, or trustee of death, loss of capacity for civil conduct or bankruptcy, commissioned by the termination of the contract, but otherwise agreed by the parties or on the basis of the nature of commissioned services should not be terminated except.
            Article 412th client died, the loss of capacity for civil conduct or bankruptcy, resulting in termination of the contract entrusted to damage the interests of clients in the client's heirs, legal representatives or organizations subject to liquidation prior to commissioning services, the trustee should continue to commissioned services to deal with.
            Article 413th death due to the trustee, the loss of capacity for civil conduct or bankruptcy, resulting in termination of the commission, the successor trustee, legal representative or the liquidation of the Organization shall promptly notify the client. Commissioned due to the termination of the contract would undermine the interests of clients in dealing with the aftermath of the client to make before the successor trustee, legal representative or the liquidation of the Organization should take the necessary measures.
            Twenty-second chapter行纪合同
            Article is 414th行纪合同line discipline people in their own name for the client to engage in trading activities, the principal of the contract paid.
            Article 415th line in dealing with disciplinary matters entrusted expenses borne by the line discipline, but, except otherwise agreed by the parties.
            Ji 416th line be commissioned a material possession, it should be entrusted to the safekeeping of objects.
            Article commissioned by the 417th were delivered to the line discipline when defective or perishable, perishable, agreed by the client, the records may dispose of the matter; and the client can not get in touch, the line discipline can reasonably action.
            Ji be the 418th person below the line clients to sell a specified price or higher than the client specified in the purchase price should be agreed by the client. Without client consent, the compensation for the difference between discipline people, the sale to take effect on the client.
            Bank records were higher than the selling price of the specified client or client specified price below the bid can be increased in accordance with the agreed remuneration. There is no agreement or an agreement is not clear,第六十一条in accordance with the provisions of this Act can not be identified, the interest belongs to clients.
            Clients have special instructions on the price of, the records may not be a breach of the instructions were to sell or buy.
            Ji be the 419th person line to buy or sell goods with market pricing, with the exception of clients have expressed the opposite point, the line discipline themselves can serve as a buyer or seller.
            Ji-line provisions in the preceding section where people still can ask the client paid.
            Ji be the 420th line commissioned in accordance with an agreement to buy materials, timely delivery of client should be. Ji-Ren催告by the Bank, the principal justification, refused to take delivery of, the records were in accordance with the provisions of this article can be a picture of the movements were commissioned.
            Objects can not be sold or commissioned by a client to withdraw betrayed by people催告Ji-line, the client does not recover or dispose of the matter, the records were in accordance with the provisions of this article can be a picture of the movements were commissioned.
            Article 421st line discipline and the third person to enter into a contract, the contract records directly to the enjoyment of human rights, obligations.
            Third party does not fulfill its obligations resulting in damage to the client, the records shall bear the liability for damages, but the line discipline and the client, except otherwise agreed by the parties.
            Ji-Ren 422nd line be completed or partially completed commissioned services, the client should be paid the appropriate remuneration. Remuneration for non-payment of overdue principal of, the records of the commission were to enjoy a lien, but, except otherwise agreed by the parties.
            423rd provisions of this chapter does not apply to the relevant provisions of the contract commission.
            Chapter twenty-brokered contract
            Contract is the 424th article居间人intermediary report to the client the opportunity to enter into a contract or a contract to provide media services, the client paid the contract.
            425th居间人should be entered into the contract on the report truthfully to the client.
           居间人the conclusion of the contract and intentionally concealed material facts relating to the giving of false information or damage the interests of the client shall not be required to pay the compensation and damages shall bear the responsibility.
           居间人contributed to the 426th article of the contract, the client should be paid in accordance with the agreement. Remuneration of居间人agreed or not agreed upon is not clear, in accordance with the provisions of this Act第六十一条can not be determined, in accordance with reasonable居间人labor.居间人the conclusion of the contract because of the media to provide services to promote the establishment of the contract, the parties to the contract by the average remuneration居间人burden.
           居间人led to the establishment of the contract, the cost of intermediary activities, from the burden of居间人.
           居间人not contributed to the 427th article of the contract shall not be required to pay compensation, but may require the client to pay expenses engaged in intermediary activities necessary expenses.
            Supplementary Provisions
            This law shall be the 428th October 1, 1999 will come into effect, "Economic Contract Law of People's Republic of China", "People's Republic of China on Economic Contracts Involving Foreign Law," "Technology Contract Law of People's Republic of China" At the same time abolished.

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