web的历史

web的历史
09-05-31  匿名提问 发布
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    背兔子走天下的熊

    WEB即 World Wide Web,简称WWW,是英国人TimBerners-Lee 1989年在欧洲共同体的一个大型科研机构任职时发明的。通过WEB,互联网上的资源,可以在一个网页里比较直观的表示出来;而且资源之间,在网页上可以链来链去。在WEB1.0上做出巨大贡献的公司有Netscape,Yahoo和Google。 Netscape研发出第一个大规模商用的浏览器,Yahoo的杨致远提出了互联网黄页, 而Google后来居上,推出了大受欢迎的搜索服务。

    搜索最大的贡献是,把互联网上海量的信息,用机器初步分了个线索。但是,光知道网页里有哪些关键字,只解决了人浏览网页的需求。所以,Tim-Berners-Lee在提出WWW不久,即开始推崇语义网(Semantic Web)的概念。为什么呢?因为互联网上的内容,机器不能理解。他的理想是,网页制作时和架构数据库时,大家都用一种语义的方式,将网页里的内容表述成机器可以理解的格式。这样,整个互联网就成了一个结构严谨的知识库。从理想的角度,这是很诱人的,因为科学家和机器都喜欢有次序的东西。Berners-Lee关心的是,互联网上数据,及能否被其它的互联网应用所重复引用。举一个例子说明标准数据库的魅力。有个产品叫LiberyLink。装了它后,到Amazon上去浏览时,会自动告诉你某一本书在用户当地的图书馆能否找到,书号是多少等。因为一本书有统一的书号和书名,两个不同的互联网服务(Amazon 和当地图书馆数据库检索)可以公享数据,给用户提供全新服务。

    但是,语义网提出之后,曲高和寡,响应的人不多。为什么?因为指望要网页的制作者提供这么多额外的信息去让机器理解一个网页,太难;简直就是人给机器打工。这违反了人们能偷懒就偷懒的本性。看看Google的成功就知道。 Google有个Page Rank技术,将网页之间互相链接的关系,用来做结果排序的一个依据,变相利用了网页制作人的判断力。想一想网页的制作者们,从数量来说,比纯浏览者的数量小得多。但Google就这一个革新,用上了网页的制作者的一部份力量,已将其推上了互联网的顶峰。

    所以互联网下一步,是要让所有的人都忙起来,全民织网,然后用软件,机器的力量使这些信息更容易被需要的人找到和浏览。如果说WEB1.0是以数据为核心的网,那我觉得WEB2.0是以人为出发点的互联网。 我们看一看最近的一些WEB2.0产品,就可以理解以上观点。

    Blog: 用户织网,发表新知识,和其他用户内容链接,进而非常自然的组织这些内容。

    RSS: 用户产生内容自动分发,定阅

    Podcasting: 个人视频/声频的发布/定阅

    SNS: blog+人和人之间的链接

    WIKI: 用户共同建设一个大百科全书

    从知识生产的角度看,WEB1.0的任务,是将以前没有放在网上的人类知识,通过商业的力量,放到网上去。WEB2.0的任务是,将这些知识,通过每个用户的浏览求知的力量,协作工作,把知识有机的组织起来,在这个过程中继续将知识深化,并产生新的思想火花;

    从内容产生者角度看,WEB1.0是商业公司为主体把内容往网上搬,而WEB2.0则是以用户为主,以简便随意方式,通过blog/podcasting 方式把新内容往网上搬;

    从交互性看,WEB1.0是网站对用户为主;WEB2.0是以P2P为主。

    从技术上看,WEB客户端化,工作效率越来越高。比如像Ajax技术, GoogleMAP/Gmail里面用得出神入化。

    我们看到,用户在互联网上的作用越来越大;他们贡献内容,传播内容,而且提供了这些内容之间的链接关系和浏览路径。在SNS里面,内容是以用户为核心来组织的。WEB2.0是以用户为核心的互联网。

    那么,这种意义上的WEB2.0,和Tim Berners-Lee的语义网,有什么不同呢?语义网的出发点是数据的规整及可重复被机器调用,提出使用语义化的内容发布工具, 试图从规则和技术标准上使互联网更加有序。 Google等搜索引擎,在没有语义网的情况下,尽可能的给互联网提供了线索。 WEB2.0则是鼓励用户用最方便的办法发布内容(blog/podcasting),但是通过用户自发的(blog)或者系统自动以人为核心(SNS)的互相链接给这些看似凌乱的内容提供索引。 因为这些线索是用户自己提供,更加符合用户使用感受。互联网逐渐从以关键字为核心的组织方式和阅读方式,到以互联网用户的个人portal(SNS)为线索,或者以个人的思想脉络(blog/rss)为线索的阅读方式。WEB2.0强调用户之间的协作。WIKI是个典型例子。从这个角度看,互联网是在变得更有序,每个用户都在贡献:要么贡献内容,要么贡献内容的次序.

    对下一代互联网的看法,还会有很多的讨论。有一点可以肯定,WEB2.0是以人为核心线索的网。提供更方便用户织网的工具,鼓励提供内容。根据用户在互联网上留下的痕迹,组织浏览的线索,提供相关的服务,给用户创造新的价值,给整个互联网产生新的价值,才是WEB2.0商业之道

    09-05-31 | 添加评论 | 打赏

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  • 0

    13415535860

    WEB or World Wide Web, referred to as WWW, is a British TimBerners-Lee 1989 in the European Community, a large-scale scientific research institution when the invention. Through the WEB, the Internet resources in a relatively intuitive page that out; and resources in the web page can chain to chain to. In WEB1.0 made great contributions to the company Netscape, Yahoo and Google. Netscape developed the first large-scale commercial browser, Yahoo's Jerry Yang made the Internet Yellow Pages, and Google catch up, launched a popular search service.



    Search the largest contribution to the volume of the Shanghai Internet information, use the machine at a preliminary clues. However, the light know what keyword pages, addressed only the needs of people visit the website. Therefore, Tim-Berners-Lee proposed by WWW in the near future, that is the beginning of highly Semantic Web (Semantic Web) concept. Why? Because of the content on the Internet, the machine can not understand. His ideal is that the website and structure of database production, we have a semantic approach to the content page statements into machine understandable format. In this way, the Internet has become a well-structured knowledge base. From the ideal point of view, this is very attractive, because machines are like scientists and orderly things. Berners-Lee was concerned that the Internet, data, and others can be cited by the Internet application. Give you an example of the charm of the standard database. There is a product called LiberyLink. After it is installed, go to the Amazon browser, it will automatically tell you a book in the library users can find, how much, etc. ISBN. Because a book's ISBN and title reunification, two different Internet Service (Amazon and the local library database search) to the public and enjoy data, provide new services to users.



    However, the Semantic Network, the niche, not many people respond. Why? Count on the page because the producers want to provide so much additional information to enable the machine to understand a Web page, too; it is the person to the machine working. This is contrary to the lazy people can be lazy nature. Take a look at the success of Google will know. Google had a Page Rank technology, links between pages of the relationship between the results used to do a sort based on the use of a web page form producer judgment. Think about this web site are the producers, from the number of terms, than the pure number of viewers is much less. However, a Google on this innovation, the use of the web pages are a part of the production of power, have been the peak of the Internet push.



    So the Internet the next step is to give all busy, all the people spun the web and then use the software, the power of machines to make the information more vulnerable to those who need to find and browse. If WEB1.0 is at the core of the network data, then I think the starting point for human-WEB2.0 Internet. We take a look at some recent WEB2.0 products, we can understand these views.



    Blog: users to weave nets, made of new knowledge, and other user content link, which is very natural that the organization of such content.



    RSS: automatic distribution of user-generated content, will be available



    Podcasting: personal video / audio of the publish / subscription



    SNS: blog + and the link between



    WIKI: to build a common user Encyclopedia



    From the perspective of knowledge production, WEB1.0 task is not previously on the web of human knowledge, through the power of business, go online. WEB2.0's mission is to knowledge, through the browser for each user the power of knowledge, collaborative work, the knowledge of organic organize themselves in the process to continue to deepen knowledge and spark new ideas;



    From the content point of view of producers, WEB1.0 is a commercial company as the main body content to the online move, and is based on users WEB2.0 mainly to simple random manner through the blog / podcasting means moving new content to the Internet;



    See from the interactive, WEB1.0 is a user-oriented Web site; WEB2.0 mainly based on P2P.



    From a technical point of view, WEB client, and getting higher and higher efficiency. Ajax technologies such as, GoogleMAP / Gmail Highlights used inside.



    We can see that users on the Internet playing an increasingly important role; their contribution to the contents of the dissemination of the contents, but also provides a link between the content and navigation path. Inside in the SNS, which is at the core to the user organizations. WEB2.0 is at the core of Internet users.



    So, in this sense WEB2.0, and Tim Berners-Lee's Semantic Web, what difference will it make? Semantic Web is the starting point for regular data and repeated calls by the machine, the use of semantic content publishing tools, trying to the rules and technical standards to make the Internet a more orderly. Google and other search engines, Semantic Web in the absence of circumstances, as much as possible to provide a clue to the Internet. WEB2.0 is encouraging users to use the most convenient way to publish content (blog / podcasting), but spontaneous user (blog) or automatic people-centered (SNS) of each link to these seemingly messy index of content providers. Because they provide clues to the user's own, more in line with the user experience. Gradually from the Internet as the core keyword and read the way the organization to the Internet user's personal portal (SNS) for clues, or the idea of a personal context (blog / rss) for clues to ways of reading. WEB2.0 stressed collaboration among users. WIKI is a typical example. From this perspective, the Internet is becoming more orderly, the contribution of each user are: either to contribute content, or content of the order of contribution.



    Views on the next-generation Internet, but also a lot of discussion. To be sure, WEB

    09-07-04 | 添加评论 | 打赏

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  • 0

    DoWoWo

    语义网(Semantic Web) 是一个由全球信息网联盟的蒂姆•伯纳斯-李(Tim Berners-Lee)在1998年提出的一个概念,它的核心是:通过给全球信息网上的文档(如:HTML)添加能够被计算器所理解的语义(Meta data),从而使整个因特网成为一个通用的信息交换媒介。语义全球信息网通过使用标准、置标语言和相关的处理工具来扩展全球信息网的能力。不过语义网概念实际上是基于很多现有技术的(某些技术甚至可以追溯到20世纪60年代末期), 也依赖于后来和text-and-markup与知识表现的综合.
      "语义"网是由比现今成熟的网际搜索工具更加行之有效的、更加广泛意义的并且自动聚集和搜集信息的文档组成的。 其最基本的元素就是语义连结
      通过下列方法可以提升万维网以及其互连的资源的可用性(usability)和有效性(usefulness):
      "标记"了语义信息的文档。这可以是机器可以理解的关于文档内容(例如文档的作者,标题,简介等)的描述, 或者是描述该网站所拥有的服务和资源.(注意:任何东西都是能被URI-统一资源定位符-所描述的,因此语义网能理解人物、地方、想法、类别等等)
      通用元数据词汇表(本体论)及词汇间的影射使得文文件作者知道如何来标记文文件方可让机器识别他想提供的元数据.
      利用元数据为语义网用户执行任务的自动软件代理(agent).
      为自动软件代理提供特定信息的网络服务 (例如, 可信度服务可以让软件代理查询某个在线商店是否曾经有过不良纪录或者发送过垃圾邮件).
      这方面的技术依靠下列的工具: URIs (以识别任何资源定位) 及 XML 及名字空间. 这些技术,加点逻辑,能组成RDF,一种用于描述任何事物的标记语言. 和RDF类似, 很多其它技术, 例如 概念图 和 Web之前的人工智能 技术,例如知识库和描述逻辑, 都有可能对语义网有贡献.
      目前的各种万维网技术都有可能被应用于语义网 (在语义环球网的意义上), 例如 :
      DOM 文文件对象模型, 一组访问XML和HTML 文文件组成部分的标准接口.
      XPath、XLink、XPointer
      XInclude XML fragment XML查询语言 XHTML
      XML Schema, RDF (Resource Description Framework)
      XSL, XSLT Extensible Stylesheet Language
      SVG (Scalable Vector Graphic)
      SMIL
      SOAP
      DTD
      元数据概念.
      你可以使用Friend-of-a-Friend-o-matic 创建一小篇RDF代码(FOAF)来在语义网中描述你自己

    09-10-05 | 添加评论 | 打赏

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