如何评价买办阶级

如何评价买办阶级
09-09-21  匿名提问 发布
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  • 0

    16165

    正如辛亥革命中的怪杰章炳麟对曾国藩的评价一样,近百年来仁者见仁,智者见智,对曾国藩褒扬者有之,斥骂者也不乏其人。早在曾国藩镇压太平天国时,即有人责其杀人过多,送其绰号“曾剃头”。到了1870年“天津教案”,不少人骂他是卖国贼,以致曾国藩也觉得“内咎神明,处咎清议”,甚至有四面楚歌之虑。辛亥革命后,一些革命党人说他“开就地正法之先河”,是遗臭万年的汉奸,建国后的史学界对他更是一骂到底,斥为封建地主阶级的卫道士、地主买办阶级的精神偶像、汉奸、卖国贼、杀人不眨眼换刽子手等等,予以全面否定。历史是各种复杂因素的有机组合体,历史从物也是如此,对复杂的历史人物予以简单、片面的肯定或否定,都是不客观的。80年代以来,学术界对曾国藩的研究逐步深入,对他的评价也相对客观。随着有关曾国藩的小说和传奇故事的出版,越来越多的人对其产生兴趣,他们希望能透过作家描述的人物形象更多的了解曾国藩的学识、见解和主张,更直接、更清晰、更深入地窥见他的内心世界。 曾国藩早年镇压太平天国时,杀人过多。在1870年的“天津教案”中,不少人骂他为卖国贼。辛亥革命后,一些革命党人评价他为遗臭万年的汉奸。建国后的史学界评价:封建地主阶级的卫道士、地主买办阶级的精神偶像、汉奸、卖国贼、杀人不眨眼的刽子手等等。然而,我们不能全盘否定。现在史学界的评价基本把曾国藩定位为爱国主义者,但是,其人早年也参与了太平天国的镇压,且帮助曾国藩训练湘军,可以说,曾国藩湘军的“战果”很大一部分功劳来源与左宗棠。但后人对二者的评价悬殊如此之大,在于左宗棠对外国侵略者的极力反抗,对清政府对外妥协的愤慨。例如,在1870年的“天津教案”中,曾国藩与左宗棠的不同态度。左宗棠认为此是正义之举。如果从二人的政治立场出发,我们或者能够理解其镇压行为。曾国藩代表了地主阶级的利益,镇压太平天国也就理所当然的。而且,其镇压越强,越符合统治阶级的口味。但是,曾国藩作为近代著名的政治家,其历史功绩也不可否认,他认识到了后清王朝的腐败衰落。他提出,“行政之要,首在得人”,危急之时需用德器兼备之人,倡廉正之风,行礼治之仁政,反对暴政、扰民,对于那些贪赃枉法官吏,一定要予以严惩。他还提倡脚踏实地,洁已奉公。他还对农业十分重视。对中西外交,他不盲目排外,主张向西方学习其先进的科学技术。曾国藩在军事上也有自己独到的见解,此点可以从以后对毛泽东的影响看出。曾国藩的一些观点及做法,在当今仍有可取和借鉴的地方

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  • 0

    909137652

    希望对 有所帮助。

    买办资产阶级  一般指殖民地半殖民地国家中,依附于帝国主义势
    力并直接为其服务的大资产阶级。买办资产阶级适应帝国主义侵略掠夺
    的需要,为帝国主义所豢养,是帝国主义剥削和压迫本国人民的工具和奴
    才,帝国主义在殖民地和半殖民地国家的重要社会支柱。它不仅依附于帝
    国主义,同时又与本国封建官绅相勾结,损害民族利益,残酷压榨本国劳
    动人民,是殖民地半殖民地国家中最反动生产关系的代表,严重阻碍生产
    力的发展和社会的进步,在民族民主革命中是极端的反革命派,是革命的
    主要对象之一。

    中国的大资产阶级必然是买办资产阶级,而买办资产阶级必然是卖国的。在中国历史上是如此,如蒋宋孔陈,现实也是如此。


    一、买办是国际资本运作链条中不可缺少的一环

    “买办总是伴随着国际资本运动,实际上买办是国际资本运作链条中不可缺少的一环”

    本来,社会主义和资本主义是两个世界,国际资本的运作是被社会主义屏蔽和隔开的,从而保证了社会主义独立自主的发展。但是和国际资本接轨以后,加上国内姓社姓资不争论,国际资本畅通无阻在中国运作就开始了,与有力推动者就是中国的买办资产阶级。经济上有产生的必然性,政治上则源于一条修正主义的路线。

    二、中国买办资产阶级必然卖国的原因

    “在中国,“买办”为什么会用来和“汉奸”这个词语搭配呢?这不可能是空穴来风,一定是有原因的。国际和本地资源在结合的过程中,一定是会存在着博弈的,而作为中间人的买办,在国际资本和本地资源的博弈过程中,买办们的位置很不讨好,很难做到保持中立,而基于买办的个人利益,只能选择依附强者,而在国际资本运动过程中,资本往往是强势的一方,因此买办的最大利益就是帮助国际资本压迫本地资源。所以,在本地资源的一方看来,买办当然也就是一个背叛者了。”“只要 处于中间人的地位, 就必须从中间过程中获取利益,而谁能给 利益,谁就是 的服务对象。这一点 是坚信的。所以,买办基本上是本地资源的背叛者。”

    中国的买办何尝是个“中间人”?本地资源根本就在他的手里,但名义在中国人民手里,经过买办一倒手,利益的大头给了外国,买办也捞了一笔,损失的只是中国,买办为了自己的利益对中国的损失是毫不心疼的,相反,没有中国的损失,没有这种“倒手”,买办怎么能化公为私呢?为什么求之不得地要入世接轨,奥妙就在这里。

    三、中国买办资产阶级是享受残羹剩饭的外国资本的走狗

    “国际资本就象是狮子,而本地资源如同草食动物。跟随着狮子的还有另外一种动物,叫土狼,他们是专门吃狮子剩下的残渣。土狼还有另外一个名称,叫鬣狗。买办的地位,大抵如此。”

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  • 0

    bonus1

    As the 1911 Revolution in the geek Zhang Binglin evaluation of Tseng Kuo-fan, like the last century eyes of the beholder, the wise see wisdom, those who have the right Tseng Kuo-fan praise, reproach those who have no shortage. As early as Tseng Kuo-fan suppression of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, that is responsible for his murder was too much, to send their nickname "has been shaved." By 1870, the "Tianjin Massacre", many people called him a traitor, so Tseng Kuo-fan also feels "guilty conscience gods, at blame-action" and even fear for embattled. After the 1911 Revolution, a number of revolutionaries, said he was "the first of its kind to open Jiudizhengfa" is a traitor go into history, historians after the founding of him is a curse in the end, denounced as apologists for the feudal landlord class, the landlord and comprador classes spirit of the idol, traitor, traitor, brutal for the executioner, etc., to be fully denied. History is a complex organic combination of factors, history from the objects, too, for complex historical figure to be simple, one-sided positive or negative, are not objective. Since the 80s, the academic study of the gradual deepening of Tseng Kuo-fan on his relatively objective evaluation. As the legendary story of Tseng Kuo-fan of the novels and the publication of more and more people have taken an interest, they want to be able to describe the characters through the writer to learn more about the image of Tseng Kuo-fan's knowledge, insights and ideas, more direct, clearer, more in-depth glimpse of his inner world. Tseng Kuo-fan years ago when the suppression of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, killing too many. In 1870, the "Tianjin Massacre", the many people criticized him as a traitor. After the 1911 Revolution, a number of revolutionaries go into history for his evaluation of the traitor. Historians after the founding of evaluation: the feudal landlord class moralist, the landlord and comprador classes the spirit of the idol, traitor, traitor, and so murderous executioner. However, we can not be negated. Historians are now fundamental to the evaluation of Tseng Kuo-fan positioned as a patriot, but its people are also involved in the early suppression of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, and to help train Hunan Tseng Kuo-fan, can be said Tseng Kuo-fan Hunan's "victories" very portion of the credit sources and Tso. But the descendants of both the evaluation of such a large gap is that General Tso's strong resistance to foreign invaders, to the indignation of the Qing government's external compromise. For example, in 1870, the "Tianjin Massacre", the Tseng Kuo-fan and Tso of the different approaches. Tso think this is a just act. From the two political standpoint, perhaps we can understand their acts of repression. Tseng Kuo-fan represented the interests of the landlord class and suppress the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom also taken for granted. Moreover, its suppression is stronger, more in line with the tastes of the ruling class. However, Tseng Kuo-fan, as well-known politician in modern times, its historical achievements, it is undeniable that he recognized the corruption of the later decline of the Qing Dynasty. He suggested that "the Chief's to be, the first at his people," a critical time when both the devices need to use German people, corruption is the wind, courtesy of the benevolent rule, oppose tyranny, disturbing and, for those corrupt officials must be severely punished. He also advocated a down-cleaning has been dedication. He also attached great importance to agriculture. Chinese and Western diplomacy, he does not blindly exclusive and advocated learning from the West with its advanced science and technology. Tseng Kuo-fan in the military also has its own unique view, this point can be seen after the impact of Mao Zedong. Tseng Kuo-fan some of the views and practices, in today's still desirable and learn from local正如辛亥革命中的怪杰章炳麟对曾国藩的评价一样,近百年来仁者见仁,智者见智,对曾国藩褒扬者有之,斥骂者也不乏其人。早在曾国藩镇压太平天国时,即有人责其杀人过多,送其绰号“曾剃头”。到了1870年“天津教案”,不少人骂他是卖国贼,以致曾国藩也觉得“内咎神明,处咎清议”,甚至有四面楚歌之虑。辛亥革命后,一些革命党人说他“开就地正法之先河”,是遗臭万年的汉奸,建国后的史学界对他更是一骂到底,斥为封建地主阶级的卫道士、地主买办阶级的精神偶像、汉奸、卖国贼、杀人不眨眼换刽子手等等,予以全面否定。历史是各种复杂因素的有机组合体,历史从物也是如此,对复杂的历史人物予以简单、片面的肯定或否定,都是不客观的。80年代以来,学术界对曾国藩的研究逐步深入,对他的评价也相对客观。随着有关曾国藩的小说和传奇故事的出版,越来越多的人对其产生兴趣,他们希望能透过作家描述的人物形象更多的了解曾国藩的学识、见解和主张,更直接、更清晰、更深入地窥见他的内心世界。 曾国藩早年镇压太平天国时,杀人过多。在1870年的“天津教案”中,不少人骂他为卖国贼。辛亥革命后,一些革命党人评价他为遗臭万年的汉奸。建国后的史学界评价:封建地主阶级的卫道士、地主买办阶级的精神偶像、汉奸、卖国贼、杀人不眨眼的刽子手等等。然而,我们不能全盘否定。现在史学界的评价基本把曾国藩定位为爱国主义者,但是,其人早年也参与了太平天国的镇压,且帮助曾国藩训练湘军,可以说,曾国藩湘军的“战果”很大一部分功劳来源与左宗棠。但后人对二者的评价悬殊如此之大,在于左宗棠对外国侵略者的极力反抗,对清政府对外妥协的愤慨。例如,在1870年的“天津教案”中,曾国藩与左宗棠的不同态度。左宗棠认为此是正义之举。如果从二人的政治立场出发,我们或者能够理解其镇压行为。曾国藩代表了地主阶级的利益,镇压太平天国也就理所当然的。而且,其镇压越强,越符合统治阶级的口味。但是,曾国藩作为近代著名的政治家,其历史功绩也不可否认,他认识到了后清王朝的腐败衰落。他提出,“行政之要,首在得人”,危急之时需用德器兼备之人,倡廉正之风,行礼治之仁政,反对暴政、扰民,对于那些贪赃枉法官吏,一定要予以严惩。他还提倡脚踏实地,洁已奉公。他还对农业十分重视。对中西外交,他不盲目排外,主张向西方学习其先进的科学技术。曾国藩在军事上也有自己独到的见解,此点可以从以后对毛泽东的影响看出。曾国藩的一些观点及做法,在当今仍有可取和借鉴的地方

    09-10-17 | 添加评论 | 打赏

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