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中药国际化的基本环境分析
随着全球天然药物潮流的兴起和中国加入WTO,中药迎来了新的机遇。千百年来,中药以独特的理论体系、确切的疗效,屹立于世界医药之林。中药是我国自然科学领域最有优势、最有特色的学科,中药理应在国际市场占有重要份额。
然而,中药面临严峻挑战,既遭遇到中西文化的冲突,也有其质量、规模、管理人才等问题,要把中医药的优势变成国际竞争力,尚需要做大量艰苦细致的工作。
3.1  宏观环境分析
3.1.1  医药消费理念的转变
(1) 随着社会和经济的发展,人们生活水平的提高及生存环境的变化,导致了人类疾病谱及健康观念发生了巨大的改变,与生活方式、社会、心理、行为相关的疾病如心脑血管病、恶性肿瘤、免疫性疾病、糖尿病、精神疾病以及老年性慢性退行性疾病逐步增多,成为威胁人类生命和影响人类生存质量的主要疾病。由此导致了医学模式、治疗方式、用药结构等在逐步进行着巨大调整。这使得在治疗慢性病、免疫性疾病以及养生保健,延年益寿,提高生存质量等方面有独特疗效优势的中药产品市场前景广阔,需求急剧上升。西方发达国家植物药市场的年增长率达到20%以上,大大超过了化学药品的增长速度。
(2) 随着现代生命科学技术的飞速发展,人类对于疾病的病因病机的认识也越来越深刻。因此,对医疗模式也提出了新的要求,即由单纯的疾病治疗转变为预防、保健、治疗、康复相结合的模式。人类的健康观念和追求生存质量的意识将进一步增强,使得中药滋补保健和安全性比西药高的特点引起了人们的关注和喜爱。
(3) 随着经济的不断发展,人们生活水平的不断提高,生活方式的转变,人们对健康需求的不断增加,特别是老年人对提高生活质量需求的急剧增加,保健消费将急剧地增长,对中药产品的需求将进一步扩大。
(4 ) 随着生物技术及药学科学的发展,人类对于化学药物引起毒副作用、耐药性及药源性疾病增多的认识也越来越清醒。这使得越来越多的人把目光移向了中药产品和生物技术药品。这预示21世纪药物市场结构将出现新格局,世界制药业也将由化学制药为主型向生物技术及天然药物的综合利用与开发型转变。
这为中医药发挥预防、保健、康复的优势和对许多现代疑难病的治疗特长提供了广阔的用武之地,在这样一种健康观念的支撑下,中药的无害与特效正好切合了人们的需求,从而为中药产品市场的进一步拓展提供了机遇。
3.1.2  中西药文化的冲突
由于东西方历史、文化背景不同,哲学思想也大相径庭。中医药理论,如阴阳五行、藏相征候、气血经络、寒热虚实和治疗上的辨证施治以及中药的性味归经、君臣佐使等,对注重微观思维方式分析事物的西方人来说是极难于理解的。
而且在西方科学及西医理论里也找不出准确表达中医药概念的词汇,因此,要西方社会理解、接受和广泛使用中药还有一个相当长的历程。这就不仅仅是一个医药问题,因而中医药被欧美等国排斥于正规医药学之外,没有法定的地位保障而仅能以代替医疗方式存在,这就使得中药难以作为药物进入,只能作为保健食品增补剂或食品添加剂在市场流通,不能标明其作为药物的适应症和治疗范围,不能作广告宣传,不能在药店出售,费用保险公司也不予偿还,不受专利法的保护等。即使在一些限制宽松的国家,要获得药品的许可证,费用又太高,如在德国申请一个中药药品许可证的费用高达数百万马克,所需时间一般至少要5年。
3.1.3 加入WTO带来的机遇
我国是世界中药材资源大国,也是世界中药贸易大国之一。中药是我国医药产业中独具特色的优势领域,也是我国传统的出口商品。我国加入WTO后,将为实现中药产业的发展提供难得的机遇。
(1) 加入WTO后,有利于充分利用我国丰富的中药资源,发挥其优势,广泛地参与国际竞争,扩大出口贸易。
(2) 加入WTO后,有利于改善中药的出口环境。
(3) 加入WTO后,有利于我国中药产业的调整。
(4) 加入WTO后,中药是我国取得药品自主知识产权的主攻方向之一。
09-06-10  beijixing11 发布
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    Cov3

    The internationalization of Chinese basic environment analysis
    With the tide of global natural medicines and China's accession to the WTO, Chinese ushered in the new opportunity. For thousands of years, with the theoretical system of TCM, unique effect, stand tall in medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine is the most advantage of natural science in China, most characteristic discipline, occupies an important place in the international market share.
    However, Chinese traditional medicine, which is facing serious challenges to the conflict between Chinese and western culture, also has its quality, scale, management personnel, the advantages of TCM to become the international competitiveness, still need to do a lot of hard meticulous work.
    3.1 macro environment analysis
    3.1.1 medical consumption concept
    (1) with the social and economic development, and the improvement of people's living standard and the environment changes that lead to the human health concept and several huge changes, and the way of life, social, psychological, behavior of related diseases such as hypertension.sleep, malignant tumor, autoimmune disease, diabetes, mental illness and senile chronic degenerative disease gradually increasing threat as human life and influence human survival quality of main disease. This led to the medical treatment, mode, the structure of a huge step by step. This makes in the treatment of chronic diseases, autoimmune disease and the health care, to improve the quality and prolong survival advantage etc have special curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine products wide prospect of market demand, rising sharply. The western developed countries plant medicine market growth rate of 20 per cent or more, considerably more than the rate of growth of chemicals.
    (2) with the modern life science and technology rapid development, human diseases of the etiology and pathogenesis is more and more profound understanding. Therefore, to medical model and puts forward new requirements, namely the disease treatment by simple change for prevention, care, treatment and rehabilitation combined mode. Human health concept and the pursuit of quality of life will further enhance the consciousness, Chinese medicine, health and safety of the characteristics of higher than cause the attention of people love.
    (3) with the constant development of economy, the improvement of people's living standard, change the way of life of health, people, especially the demand for increased dramatically improve the quality of life needs, health care spending will increase rapidly growing demand for Chinese products, will be further expanded.
    (4) with pharmaceutical biotechnology and scientific development, human for chemical drug toxicity, resistance and increased drug-induced diseases are more and more knowledge. This makes more people turned his gaze toward the TCM products and biotechnology drugs. This indicates the 21st century drugs market structure, the new pattern will appear by chemical medicine fermention will mainly to biological technology and comprehensive utilization of natural medicine and development.
    This medicine is play prevention, care and recovery of many of the advantages and the treatment of modern difficult-and-rare-case specialty provides useful in such a concept of health, the support and the effects of TCM has just suit is harmless to the demands of the people, so as to further expand the TCM products market provides opportunities.
    Traditional culture conflict. Authorizations
    Due to the different historical and cultural background of western philosophy, differ greatly. TCM theory, such as the Yin and Yang, qi and blood and directive symptoms and treatment efficacy of unprotected sex and medicine dialectical executes unto the king, taste to notice that, with micro analysis of mode of thinking things is extremely difficult to understand westerners.
    But in western science and medicine theory also can not find out exactly the concept of Chinese vocabulary, accordingly, want to understand, accept and western medicine still widely used quite a long journey. It is not only a medical problem, thus medicine were European countries rejection, no regular medicine in the legal status of the security and can only exist in lieu of medical treatment, this makes Chinese medicine to enter, only as a health food or food additives in thickening supplements can indicate its market circulation, as a drug treatment, the indications and advertising, can not sell in pharmacy, insurance company also not repay, not by the patent protection. Even in some countries, to limit the loose medicines for license fees, and too much, such as in Germany for a Chinese drug license fees, millions of mark time needed for at least five years commonly.
    The WTO brings 3.1.3 opportunities
    China is the world Chinese medicine resources, and the world trade. Traditional Chinese medicine is the unique advantages in the industrial field, but also the traditional Chinese export commodities. After China's accession to the WTO, will be for the development of medicine industry provides a rare opportunity.
    (1) the accession to the WTO, China to make full use of the rich resources of TCM, exert its advantages, widely participate in international competition, expand export trade.
    (2) after entering WTO, to improve the environment of Chinese exports.
    (3) after joining WTO, the adjustment of Chinese materia medica industry.
    (4) after entering WTO, Chinese herbal medicines are made of independent intellectual property is one of the main direction.

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