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腓尼基人的全面了解

腓尼基人的全面了解
09-10-12  匿名提问 发布
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    sophia_holly

    腓尼基人是历史上一个古老的民族,生活在今天地中海东岸相当于今天的黎巴嫩和叙利亚沿海一带,他们曾经建立过一个高度文明的古代国家。


    目录 [隐藏]
    1 历史
    2 繁华的商业贸易
    3 文字
    4 参考条目
    腓尼基人-历史    

    腓尼基人使用的金币


    公元前10世纪至公元前8世纪是腓尼基城邦的繁荣时期。腓尼基人是古代世界最著名的航海家和商人,他们驾驶着狭长的船只踏遍地中海的第一个角落,地中海沿岸的每个港口都能见到腓尼基商人的踪影。由于腓尼基人早已经消失在历史的烟波云海之中,有关他们的记载都出自曾经吃过腓尼基人苦头的希腊人和罗马人之手。所以,今天我们所知道的腓尼基人很不全面。据说,“腓尼基”是古代希腊语,意思是“绛紫色的国度”,原因是腓尼基人居住的地方特产是紫红色染料。腓尼基人强迫奴隶潜入海底采取海蚌,从中提取鲜艳而牢固的颜料,然后用紫红色染成花色的布匹运销地中海各国。腓尼基人是怎样崛起的?来自何方?今天的人们一概不知,在今天能见到的史书上最早见到腓尼基人,他们早已经是在地中海东岸被称作“腓尼基海岸”的土地上,他们在那里建立了许多繁华的商业城市。



    腓尼基人-繁华的商业贸易    

    腓尼基人浮雕


    那时候,腓尼基人建立的最大的城市是推罗,有人考证说是今天黎巴嫩的苏尔。推罗的如此的富裕,以致古代的作家们为对它大肆渲染,用了很多美丽的词藻,诸如“街上堆银如堆土,堆金如堆沙”,等等。不过,腓尼基人并没有建立一个统一的国家,每个腓尼基城市都是一个国家,居民们推选自己的国王,崇敬自己的保护神。腓尼基人非常精明,由于背靠高耸的黎巴嫩山,他们只能向浩瀚的大海求生存,没有发生农业的条件,他们发展了手工业和商业,他们是高明的手工业艺人,也是远走四方的商人。他们不仅贩卖自己制作的各种精美的手工艺品,如玻璃花瓶、珠宝饰物、金属器皿和武器等等,更销售来自各个地方的特产:有来自远东和印度的谷物、酒类、纺织品、地毯和宝石,有来自黑海沿岸的铅、黄金和铁,有塞浦路斯的铜、柏树和玉米,也有希腊的各种工艺品。此外,西西里岛的酒和油,巴利阿里群岛的酒和科西嘉的蜡,从非洲内地带回的象牙和奴隶,从西班牙带回的金银,甚至还有来自不列颠的锡,所有这些都汇集到了腓尼基人手里,经他们手再卖出去。随着商业的发达,腓尼基人在地中海沿岸建立了许多商站或殖民地,这些商站都成了当地经济最繁华的地方,很多商站后来成了著名的商业城市,如今天法国的马塞,有些城市当年还是强大的城邦国家,非洲北部迦太基(今突尼斯境内)是它最大的殖民地。曾经一度让罗马人胆颤心惊。腓尼基人不但精明的商人,更是勇敢的航海家,他们踏波地中海,还穿过直布罗陀海峡,经常出没波涛汹涌的大西洋。今天,直布罗陀海峡的两个座标就是用腓尼基的神来命名的,被称为“美尔卡尔塔”。据说,腓尼基人驾驶有船只向北到达过今天法国的大西洋海岸,到达不列颠,向南甚至远至好望角,他们经常同西非的黑人进行交易,希罗多德在他的著作中对此作过记载:腓尼基人在海滩上卸下货物后,返回船上,升起一缕黑烟作信号,黑人看到后,来到海滩上,在货物旁放上一些金子,然后躲进树林。腓尼基人上岸,见金子数量满意,就收起金子离开,不满意就回船上等,直到黑人增加的金子使他们满意为至。



    腓尼基人-文字    

    腓尼基人字母


    腓尼基人最大的贡献是他们使用的文字——腓尼基字母,他们出于实用的需要,去掉了象形文字和楔形文字优美的外观,从中抽取了一些简单的符号,组成了22个字母,这就是腓尼基字母。腓尼基字母是今天欧洲许多文字的共同祖先。公元前8世纪以后,腓尼基相继附属于亚述、新巴比伦、波斯、马其顿诸国。

    09-10-12 | 添加评论

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    RT45RT

    Phoenicians were an ancient nation's history, claiming to be flash-US special people, also known as Semites. Living in the east coast of the Mediterranean today, the equivalent of today's Lebanon and Syria, along the coast, they had been the establishment of a highly civilized ancient country. The 10th century BC to the 8th century BC Phoenician city-state is a boom. The Phoenicians in the ancient world's most famous navigator and businessmen, they were driving a long, narrow vessels traversing the Mediterranean, the first corner of the Mediterranean can be seen each port trace of Phoenician traders.

    As the Phoenicians already disappeared among the sea of clouds in the history of the Lakeshore, on their records come from the Phoenicians had eaten a lot of hardship the hands of the Greeks and Romans. So, today we know Phoenician far from comprehensive. It is said that "Phoenician" is the ancient Greek, meaning "purple-red purple state," because the Phoenicians live local products is purple dye. Phoenicians forced slaves to take mejillon the seabed, from bright and strong pigment extraction, and then stained with the purple color of the cloth distribution in the Mediterranean countries.





    .

    [Edit this paragraph] Phoenician Introduction

    What is the rise of the Phoenicians, from where, without the knowledge of people today. In today's history books to see the earliest to see the Phoenicians, who already are in the Mediterranean east coast has been called the "Phoenician coast," the land where they built many thriving commercial city. At that time, the Phoenicians established by Romania's largest city is pushing, it was verified that in Lebanon today, Sulzer. To push Romania's so rich, so that the ancient writers as to its hype, with a lot of fine-sounding words, such as "silver heap on the street, such as bulldozers, pile gold, such as sand," and so on. However, the Phoenicians did not build a unified country, every Phoenician cities are a country, residents elected their own king, respect the protection of their own god. Phoenicians were too smart to close proximity to the towering Mount Lebanon, they can only survive to the vast sea, the conditions did not occur in agriculture, they have developed handicraft industry and commerce, they are brilliant handicraft arts Phoenician jewelry , is also gone to four businessmen. Not only do they produce their own range trafficking of exquisite handicrafts such as glass vases, jewelry, metal containers and weapons, etc., more sales from various parts of the specialty: from the Far East and India, grain, wine, textiles, carpets and precious stones, from the Black Sea coast, lead, gold and iron, copper of Cyprus, cypress and maize, but also a variety of handicrafts of Greece. In addition, the Sicilian wine and oil, the Balearic Islands, Corsica wine and wax, brought back from the African interior, ivory and slaves, gold and silver brought back from Spain, and even the tin from Britain, all of These are pooled into the hands of the Phoenicians through their hands and then sell it. As the business developed, Phoenicians on the Mediterranean coast of established a number of commercial stations or colonies, of these commercial stations have become the most prosperous parts of the local economy, many commercial stations became famous commercial cities such as Marseille in France today, In some cities that year is still a powerful city-state, northern Africa, Carthage (now Tunisia) was its largest colony. So that the Romans once alarmed.

    Phoenicians not only a shrewd businessman, but also courageous navigator who ride waves in the Mediterranean, but also through the Strait of Gibraltar, often appear rough Atlantic. Today, the two coordinates of the Strait of Gibraltar is to use Phoenician god named, have been called "America Erkaerta." It is said that the Phoenicians arrived in the north to drive a vessel off the Atlantic coast of France, today, arrived in Britain, south and even as far away as Cape of Good Hope, they often deal with the blacks in West Africa, Herodotus in his writings to give a been recorded: the Phoenicians on the beach unloading of cargo and return to the ship, the rising plume of black smoke to signal to the black to see them come to the beach, the cargo placed beside some of the gold, and then hid in the woods. Phoenicians landed, see the number of gold satisfaction, put away the gold on the left, are not satisfied with the return to the ship and so on, until the black gold to increase their satisfaction to the. Of course, the greatest contribution to the Phoenicians, or they use the word - Phoenician alphabet, they are out of practical needs, and the wedge removed hieroglyphs written a beautiful appearance, from taking a few simple symbols, group became the 22 letters, this is the Phoenician alphabet. Phoenician alphabet is today the common ancestor of many European language. After the 8th century BC, Phoenician successively attached to the Assyrian, the new Babylon, Persia, Macedonia Asian countries.

    Phoenicians who controlled the maritime trade in the Mediterranean region as long as 3000 years, but beyond that, we are understanding of this mysterious people is very limited. Today, DNA testing and recent archaeological discoveries are the gains soon for us to solve an old puzzle: What is the Phoenician people? They also left behind for future generations, what kind of legacy?

    In October 2004 by the American National Geographic Society-sponsored human genome expert at Oxford University, Spencer Wells and Lebanon expert Pierre Zhalu Ya human genome using genetic method to search for the item after two years of the Phoenicians finally the results of research.

    Conclusion: The Lebanese and the Phoenicians, the closest

    Wales and Zhaluo Yi hope that through genetic methods retrieve "sea people" and the Canaanites, the link between the Carthaginians, who spent nearly two years along the Mediterranean coast were collected by random sampling local people's blood, back to the lab to analyze. They explained that a person's DNA, there are X, Y two long-chain, Y-chain can reflect the information from the paternal, in addition to DNA, there are short-chain, short-chain mutations more easily, but also faster. Long-chain is able to maintain stable and slow changes in a certain sense, can in this gene long-chain reflects the patriarchal family as a clock. Reference to the original Phoenicians from Lebanon Raskifa genes in a cave, where archaeologists have discovered many of the Phoenicians with the remains of more than 4,000 years ago, in addition to reference to the Phoenician remains found in Turkey, and from other parts of the Phoenician remains.

    Wales and Zhaluo Yi explained that the different sources have different numbers paternal gene numbers for the M172's, their ancestors 12,000 years ago from the Middle East, M89 ancestors of people from Africa 45,000 years ago. Carthage before the Phoenicians arrived,腓尼基人是历史上一个古老的民族,自称为闪美特人,又称闪族人。生活在今天地中海东岸相当于今天的黎巴嫩和叙利亚沿海一带,他们曾经建立过一个高度文明的古代国家。公元前10世纪至公元前8世纪是腓尼基城邦的繁荣时期。腓尼基人是古代世界最著名的航海家和商人,他们驾驶着狭长的船只踏遍地中海的第一个角落,地中海沿岸的每个港口都能见到腓尼基商人的踪影。
      由于腓尼基人早已经消失在历史的烟波云海之中,有关他们的记载都出自曾经吃过腓尼基人苦头的希腊人和罗马人之手。所以,今天我们所知道的腓尼基人很不全面。据说,“腓尼基”是古代希腊语,意思是“绛紫色的国度”,原因是腓尼基人居住的地方特产是紫红色染料。腓尼基人强迫奴隶潜入海底采取海蚌,从中提取鲜艳而牢固的颜料,然后用紫红色染成花色的布匹运销地中海各国。


    .
    [编辑本段]腓尼基人简介
      腓尼基人是怎样崛起的,来自何方,今天的人们一概不知。在今天能见到的史书上最早见到腓尼基人,他们早已经是在地中海东岸被称作“腓尼基海岸”的土地上,他们在那里建立了许多繁华的商业城市。那时候,腓尼基人建立的最大的城市是推罗,有人考证说是今天黎巴嫩的苏尔。推罗的如此的富裕,以致古代的作家们为对它大肆渲染,用了很多美丽的词藻,诸如“街上堆银如堆土,堆金如堆沙”,等等。不过,腓尼基人并没有建立一个统一的国家,每个腓尼基城市都是一个国家,居民们推选自己的国王,崇敬自己的保护神。腓尼基人非常精明,由于背靠高耸的黎巴嫩山,他们只能向浩瀚的大海求生存,没有发生农业的条件,他们发展了手工业和商业,他们是高明的手工业艺腓尼基人的饰物人,也是远走四方的商人。他们不仅贩卖自己制作的各种精美的手工艺品,如玻璃花瓶、珠宝饰物、金属器皿和武器等等,更销售来自各个地方的特产:有来自远东和印度的谷物、酒类、纺织品、地毯和宝石,有来自黑海沿岸的铅、黄金和铁,有塞浦路斯的铜、柏树和玉米,也有希腊的各种工艺品。此外,西西里岛的酒和油,巴利阿里群岛的酒和科西嘉的蜡,从非洲内地带回的象牙和奴隶,从西班牙带回的金银,甚至还有来自不列颠的锡,所有这些都汇集到了腓尼基人手里,经他们手再卖出去。随着商业的发达,腓尼基人在地中海沿岸建立了许多商站或殖民地,这些商站都成了当地经济最繁华的地方,很多商站后来成了著名的商业城市,如今天法国的马赛,有些城市当年还是强大的城邦国家,非洲北部迦太基(今突尼斯境内)是它最大的殖民地。曾经一度让罗马人胆颤心惊。
      腓尼基人不但是精明的商人,更是勇敢的航海家,他们踏波地中海,还穿过直布罗陀海峡,经常出没波涛汹涌的大西洋。今天,直布罗陀海峡的两个坐标就是用腓尼基的神来命名的,被称为“美尔卡尔塔”。据说,腓尼基人驾驶有船只向北到达过今天法国的大西洋海岸,到达不列颠,向南甚至远至好望角,他们经常同西非的黑人进行交易,希罗多德在他的著作中对此作过记载:腓尼基人在海滩上卸下货物后,返回船上,升起一缕黑烟作信号,黑人看到后,来到海滩上,在货物旁放上一些金子,然后躲进树林。腓尼基人上岸,见金子数量满意,就收起金子离开,不满意就回船上等,直到黑人增加的金子使他们满意为至。当然,腓尼基人最大的贡献还是他们使用的文字——腓尼基字母,他们出于实用的需要,去掉了象形文字和契形文字优美的外观,从中抽取了一些简单的符号,组成了22个字母,这就是腓尼基字母。腓尼基字母是今天欧洲许多文字的共同祖先。公元前8世纪以后,腓尼基相继附属于亚述、新巴比伦、波斯、马其顿诸国。
      腓尼基人曾经掌控地中海地区的海洋贸易长达3000年之久,但除此之外,我们对这支神秘民族的了解却非常有限。如今,DNA检验与最近的考古发现都有所斩获,即将为我们解开一道古老的谜题:腓尼基人究竟是什么人?他们又为后世留下了什么样的遗赠?
      2004年10月,由美国国家地理学会赞助的牛津大学人类基因专家斯宾塞·威尔斯和黎巴嫩人类基因专家皮埃尔·札卢亚用基因法寻找腓尼基人的项目经过两年的研究终于有了结果。
      结论:黎巴嫩人与腓尼基人最接近
      威尔斯和扎罗伊希望通过基因的方法找回“海人”和迦南人、迦太基人之间的联系,他们花了近两年的时间沿着地中海海岸以随机抽样的方式收集当地人的血样,带回实验室去分析。他们解释说,人的DNA中有X、Y两条长链,Y链能够反映来自父系的信息,此外DNA中还有短链,短链产生突变比较容易,也来得快。长链则能保持稳定而缓慢的变化,从某种意义来说,可以把基因中的这条长链当做一架反映父系家族的时钟。腓尼基人的原始基因参照来自黎巴嫩Raskifa的一个山洞,在这里,考古工作者发现了多具4000多年前的腓尼基人遗骸,此外还参照了在土耳其发现的腓尼基人遗骸,和来自其他地方的腓尼基人遗骸。
      威尔斯和扎罗伊解释说,不同的父系来源有不同的编号,基因编号为M172的人,其的祖先12000年前来自中东,M89的人的祖先45000年前来自非洲。在腓尼基人到达迦太基以前,当地人应该主要是M96基因,他们的祖先来自北非和西非。
      2007年10月公布的结果是:在2000个血样中,172个有马其顿血统、98个有摩洛哥血统……由于黎巴嫩人属于老地中海人的一个分支,也就是说黎巴嫩人与伊比利亚人,包括巴斯克人,北非人,意大利人,法国人等等具有相同的基因标志。实际上是同一种人。他们的结论是,古代的腓尼基人与今天的黎巴嫩人遗传特征最接近,也就是说,腓尼基人很可能就是今天的黎巴嫩人,而“海人”则还是一个谜。


    .
    [编辑本段]紫红色的人
      腓尼基(Phoenicians )是古代地中海世界东岸地区一系列小城邦的总称。位于利万特海岸中部狭长地带,北起阿拉杜斯,南到多尔,长约320公里。公元前12世纪初,腓尼基达到极盛时期。
      公元前9~前7世纪,腓尼基各城邦多次参加叙利亚各国反对亚述的同盟,均告失败。公元前6~前4世纪,腓尼基各城邦先后被新巴比伦王国征服,后又成为波斯帝国的第五行省。公元前332年,马其顿王亚历山大大帝东征,在推罗遇到顽强抵抗。此后,腓尼基人先后处于希腊人、罗马人的长期统治下,逐渐与其他民族融合

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