求肯尼迪简介。

求肯尼迪简介。
08-12-28  老婆1216 发布
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  • 0

    lqk42010

    尼迪(1917 ~ 1963)

    Kennedy, John Fitzgerald

    U.S. President (1961 ~ 1963). Born May 29, 1917 and died in November 22, 1963. He graduated from Harvard University. During World War II, he commanded PT Boats sunk by the Japanese Navy, was seriously injured and fled on a desert island behind enemy lines, and later led the soldiers back. 29-year-old campaign to win the House of Representatives, re-3 session (1947 ~ 1953). In Congress, he internal emphasis on social relief and welfare of civilians, foreign opposition to communism and support of the Cold War. Truman was pressure for the Chiang Kai-shek and Communist China expressed dissatisfaction with the joint policy. He entered the Senate in 1953, when the McCarthy anti-communist movement at the time of the prevalence of a large number of federal civil servants in order to sympathize with the Communist Party on charges of being clean, Kennedy has no objection. Written in 1956, "A Brief Biography of the brave," a book published, was the Pulitzer Prize. In the late 50 permanent members of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee; advocated extending assistance to Africa and the Newly Independent States. His political views gradually left, in the Democratic Party's popularity has also gradually be increased. Senate re-election in 1958, announced in January 1960 to run for president, narrowly defeated Republican candidate Richard Nixon, becoming the youngest in U.S. history a president who is also the first Catholic president. 1037 days he came to power, serving the beginning of the U.S. invasion of Cuba faced a crushing defeat suffered by the incident. In June 1961 with the Soviet Union leader Nikita Khrushchev in Vienna in talks to adopt a tough attitude toward the Soviet Union and East Germany to the threat of a separate peace treaty signed. October 1962 found that the Soviet Union installed missiles in Cuba, he ordered the implementation of the embargo against Cuba, forcing the withdrawal of Soviet missile installations. 10 months later, the United States, the Soviet Union, the British Nuclear Test Ban Treaty signed. Kennedy Organization alliance for progress in Latin America and the Peace Corps. He proposed a substantial reduction of income tax legislation and the expansion of human rights legislation, but postponed until after his death was passed. In November 1963, in Dallas, Texas assassinated.

    John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born in 1917 in Massachusetts, Brooklyn City. From January 20, 1961 to November 22, 1963 served as President of the United States, November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas, was assassinated. I do not intend to Kennedy on the life of most other aspects of the situation described, in part because such a situation is widely known, but more important is because the Kennedy most of the personal and political activities and his inclusion in the register has little to do .

    From now until the next millennium, the Peace Corps, the Inter-American Alliance for Progress or pig ① Gulf incident could profoundly to stay in people's memories of Kennedy's tax policies and human rights legislation does not seem to very important. The John Fitzgerald Kennedy added to the register only one reason: He is the development of the Apollo program is principally responsible. If the future of mankind will not be completely destroyed, we can be confident that our trip to the moon and even from now on to the future in 5000 is still seen as a truly major event in human history, one of the great milestone.

    I will plan the importance of land on the moon a little further discussion. Should we should not be attributed to the major achievements or Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin on the moon the first time such a footprint left by the people? If we are to go down through the ages, based on people, then the second, it may be true, because I really do think that from now to the future in 5000, the more likely to stay in people's memory is not Neil Armstrong John F. Kennedy. However, from the impact point of view, is irrelevant Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin's. If these two individuals in the Apollo launch on the 2nd, unfortunately, died two months before, when there are many well-trained to extraordinary astronauts to replace them.

    Then we should be attributed to Warner V Brown achievements or space science have had a significant contribution to some other scientist or engineer? Of course, Werner von Braun, as Constantine茨欧尔test Krzyzewski, Robert H Goddard and Hermann欧伯斯such an important, like our ancestors, in order to make a contribution to the exploration of outer space beyond the its due responsibilities. However, the implementation of the Apollo program once he had made a political decision, not a single scientist or any of a team of 10 scientists to their success will play a decisive role. A decisive breakthrough in lunar travel is not a unique scientific progress, but rather made prior to the plan of 24 billion U.S. dollars funding political decision.

    Well, this political decision was made to do what? Even in the absence of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, sooner or later will not make such a decision? But I firmly believe that of course can not make absolutely sure - eventually there will be a government for a manned trip to the moon and funding. Of course, John Fitzgerald Kennedy are not oblivious of public opposition to the imposition of the Apollo program.

    But there is no great pressure from the public to support such an ambitious plan. Assuming that in 1959 or in 1960 Congress passed the USA the development of the Apollo program and its funding of the motion, which was then rejected by President Eisenhower, then maybe we can say only the wishes of the Kennedy trend of public opinion. But this is not true: Many Americans want to have some kind of space program, but the public were in support of a large space program really is not very high voice. In fact even after the success of Apollo on the 2nd, the public which the scheme whether it is worth the price there are still many arguments. Of course, since 1966 the United States since the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's budget has declined fierce.

    Therefore not difficult to see John Fitzgerald Kennedy's leadership is the Apollo program was implemented so that the real reason for this is that he was in May 1961 in the United States made "before the end of this decade" launching a manned lunar spacecraft guarantee; that he received funds from Congress and is under his leadership to formulate a plan. People may believe that the moon landing plan worked out sooner or later (which is not completely sure), but Kennedy is actually worked out the plan in person.

    Of course, some people will still feel the Apollo program cost is only a great little project, is indeed insignificant. So far there is little indication that will be July 20, 1969 (the actual landing on the moon days) as the anniversary of the national holiday. However, we may recall that although in the sixteenth century did not celebrate the festival in Columbus, but a beginning of a new era it has become today to celebrate the holiday.

    Even if the Apollo program successors, it will always be a human being, one of the greatest innovation to stay in people's memory. But I think Apollo will eventually cause the future, into outer space in the future, the role is much greater than in the past. If this is the case, our children and grandchildren will feel that Apollo will be on the 2nd trip as Columbus crossed the Atlantic, in human history to create a new era.

    ① pig Gulf incident (Bahia de los Cochinos): 1961 years 4 on 17 by the 1200 anti-Castro Cuban exiles from the south-west coast of Cuba launched an attempted invasion. Because of the invasion by the United States government-funded and directed, so the already hostile relationship between the United States and ancient further deterioration of the international tensions of the Cold War has further aggravated

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    qinyao1988

    尼迪(1917~1963)

    Kennedy,John Fitzgerald

    美国总统(1961~1963)。生于1917年5月29日,卒于1963年11月22日。毕业于哈佛大学 。在第二次世界大战中,他指挥的鱼雷艇被日本海军击沉,身受重伤,逃上敌后荒岛,后来率领士兵归队。29岁竞选众议员获胜,连任3届(1947~1953)。在国会里,他对内重视社会救济和平民福利,对外反对共产主义,支持冷战。对于杜鲁门一度压蒋介石与中共联合的政策表示不满。1953年他进入参议院,正值麦卡锡反共运动盛行之时,大批联邦公务人员以同情共产党的罪名遭到清洗,肯尼迪对此并无异议。1956 年写成《勇敢者传略》一书出版,获得普利策奖。50年代后期任参议院外交委员会委员;力主扩大援助非洲和新独立国家。他的政治观点逐渐左移 ,在民主党内的声望也逐步提高。1958 年连任参议员,1960年1月宣布竞选总统,以微弱多数击败共和党候选人尼克松,成为美国历史上最年轻的总统,也是第一位信奉天主教的总统。他执政1037天,任职开始就遇到美国入侵古巴遭受惨败的事件。1961年6月与苏联领导人赫鲁晓夫在维也纳会谈 ,以强硬 态度对待苏联要与东德单独签订和约的威胁。1962年10月发现苏联在古巴设置导弹,他下令对古巴施行封锁,迫使苏联撤出导弹装置。10个月后,美、苏、英禁止核试验条约签字。肯尼迪组织拉丁美洲争取进步同盟与和平队。他提出的大量削减所得税的立法以及扩大人权的立法,却推迟到他死后才得以通过。1963 年11月,在得克萨斯州达拉斯市遇刺身亡。

    约翰·菲茨杰拉德·肯尼迪于1917年出生在马萨诸塞州布鲁克莱恩城。他从1961年1月20日到1963年11月22日担任美国总统,1963年11月22日在得克萨斯州达拉斯市被暗杀。我不打算对肯尼迪生平的大多其它方面的情况加以叙述,部分是因为这样的情况广为人们所熟知,但更主要的是因为肯尼迪大部分的个人和政治活动与他列入本册没有多大关系。

    从现在起到未来的一千年内,和平工作团、美洲进步同盟或猪海湾事件①都不可能深刻地留在人们的记忆里,肯尼迪的税务政策和人权立法看来也不会很重要。把约翰·菲茨杰拉德·肯尼迪列入本册的原因只有一个:他是制订阿波罗计划的主要负责人。如果今后人类不会被彻底毁灭的话,我们完全可以确信,我们的月球之行从现在起甚至到今后的5000年中仍被看作是一个真正的重大事件,人类史上伟大的里程碑之一。

    我将对登月计划的重要性稍加进一步讨论。难道我们不应该把主要功绩归于尼尔·阿姆斯特朗或埃德温·奥尔德林这样在月球上第一次留下足迹的人吗?假如我们以留名千古为基础给人排名次的话,这样做可能是正确的,因为我确实认为从现在起到今后的5000年中,更可能留在人们记忆中的是尼尔·阿姆斯特朗而不是肯尼迪。但是从影响的角度来看,阿姆斯特朗和奥尔德林是完全不重要的。假如这两个人在阿波罗2号发射二个月之前不幸死去,当时还有很多名训练有素、才能非凡的宇航员来取代他们。

    那么我们应该把功绩归于沃纳·V·布朗或对航天科学有过重大贡献的某个其他科学家或工程师吗?当然沃纳·冯·布朗象康斯坦丁·茨欧尔考维斯基、罗伯特·H·戈达德和赫尔曼·欧伯斯这样重要的先辈一样,为探索空间做出的贡献超出了自己应尽的职责。但是执行阿波罗计划的政治决定一旦做出,没有任何一个科学家或任何一个由十个科学家组成的小组对其成功会起决定性的作用。登月旅行的决定性突破不是一个独特的科学进展,而是事先做出的给该项计划拨款240亿美元的政治决定。

    那么这项政治决定是怎样做出的呢?即使没有约翰·菲茨杰拉德·肯尼迪不是迟早也会做出这样的决定吗?但是我坚信当然无法做出绝对的肯定——最终会有某个政府为载人到月球旅行而拨款。当然约翰·菲茨杰拉德·肯尼迪并不是不顾公众的反对来强行实施阿波罗计划的。

    但是也没有来自公众的巨大压力来支持这样的一项宏大计划。假设在1959年或1960年美国国会通过了制定阿波罗计划并为其拨款的议案,而随后又被艾森豪威尔总统否决了话,那么也许可以说肯尼迪只是顺应了公众舆论的潮流。但是事实却并非如此:许多美国人希望有某种空间计划,但是公众当中支持一个真正庞大空间计划的呼声并不是很高。事实上甚至阿波罗2号成功之后,公众当中对该计划所付出的代价是否值得还存在着很大的争论。当然自从1966年以来美国国家航空和航天局的预算有了猛烈的下降。

    因此不难看出约翰·菲茨杰拉德·肯尼迪的领导才是使阿波罗计划开始实施的真正原因,是他在1961年5月使美国做出在“本年代结束以前”发射一架载人飞船登月的保证;是他从国会得到资金并且是在他的领导下制订出了计划。人们可能会相信登月计划迟早总会制订出来(这是不能完全肯定的),但是肯尼迪是实际上制订出了这一计划的人。

    当然有些人仍会感到阿波罗计划只不过是一项耗资巨大、收效甚微的工程,实为无足轻重。到目前为止还没有什么迹象表明会把1969年7月20日(实际在月球着陆的日子)的周年纪念日作为全国的节日。但是我们也许记得虽然在十六世纪并没有庆祝哥伦布的节日,但是在一个新时代开始的今天它却成了人们庆祝的节日。

    即使阿波罗计划后继无人,它也将永远作为人类最伟大的创举之一留在人们的记忆中。但是我认为阿波罗事业终究会继往开来,遨游太空在将来所起的作用比过去要大得多。如果是这样的话,我们的子孙后代将会感到阿波罗2号之行会象哥伦布穿越大西洋一样,在人类史上开创了一个崭新的时代。

    ①猪海湾事件(Bahia de los Cochinos):1961年4月17日由1200名反卡斯特罗的古巴流亡分子从古巴西南海岸发动的一次未遂入侵事件。因为这次入侵是由美国政府资助和指挥的,所以使已经敌对的美古关系进一步恶化,使国际冷战的紧张局势进一步加剧

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    JUNOXUAN

    美国第三十五任总统(1961~1963)。生于1917年5月29日,卒于1963年11月22日。毕业于哈佛大学 。在第二次世界大战中,他指挥的鱼雷艇被日本海军击沉,身受重伤,逃上敌后荒岛,后来率领士兵归队。29岁竞选众议员获胜,连任3届(1947~1953)。在国会里,他对内重视社会救济和平民福利,对外反对共产主义,支持冷战。对于杜鲁门一度压蒋介石与中共联合的政策表示不满。1953年他进入参议院,正值麦卡锡反共运动盛行之时,大批联邦公务人员以同情共产党的罪名遭到清洗,肯尼迪对此并无异议。1956 年写成《勇敢者传略》一书出版,获得普利策奖。50年代后期任参议院外交委员会委员;力主扩大援助非洲和新独立国家。他的政治观点逐渐左移 ,在民主党内的声望也逐步提高。1958 年连任参议员,1960年1月宣布竞选总统,以微弱多数击败共和党候选人尼克松,成为美国历史上最年轻的总统,也是第一位信奉天主教的总统。他执政1037天,任职开始就遇到美国入侵古巴遭受惨败的事件。1961年6月与苏联领导人赫鲁晓夫在维也纳会谈 ,以强硬 态度对待苏联要与东德单独签订和约的威胁。1962年10月发现苏联在古巴设置导弹,他下令对古巴施行封锁,迫使苏联撤出导弹装置。10个月后,美、苏、英禁止核试验条约签字。肯尼迪组织拉丁美洲争取进步同盟与和平队。他提出的大量削减所得税的立法以及扩大人权的立法,却推迟到他死后才得以通过。1963 年11月,在得克萨斯州达拉斯市遇刺身亡。

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