A certain point of view, a modern history of China, which is lagging behind China's humiliating history of being beaten. Humiliating situation for this reason, the western capitalist powers on the one hand, China's aggression, on the other hand, the backwardness of China's social system. Western powers on China's aggression is one of the world capitalist development, the inevitable product of capitalist countries to open up a colony for the world an important part of hegemony. Powers of aggression against China and the characteristics of the changes in the way it is with the whole process of capitalist development are closely linked with the contradictions. Western powers of aggression against China have had a profound social impact, not only hinder the pace of modernization of China, at the same time to stimulate an objective of China's new relations of production rise. Can be the subject to attention from the two aspects: on the one hand, capitalism in the West's relations with foreign powers against China, on the one hand, the great powers of aggression against China and Chinese society at all levels to explore resistance, China's changes in the relationship between socio-economic development.
The first phase: the Opium War to the Sino-Japanese War Sino-Japanese War (1840 ~ 1894). This stage, the Western powers against China is the main means of waging war, mainly through export of commodities, a major invasion of China, France and the United States the country is British and other Western industrialized countries, as well as Russia. During this period, countries such as Britain and France for the plundering of raw materials, develop new markets, Russia continued its policy of aggression against China, they are from the sea and land launched aggression against China, has launched the two Opium Wars and the Sino-French War, forced the Chinese signed the "Nanjing Treaty" and a series of unequal treaties, the loss of China's territorial sovereignty. Aggression by foreign powers in China has gradually become a semi-colonial semi-feudal society as dumping goods and predatory powers of the place of raw materials.
second phase: Sino-Japanese War Sino-Japanese War to the end of the First World War (1894 ~ 1918). Invasion of China during this period the way the Western powers in the political tide on the first and then gradually started to carve up the implementation of the "China Zhi-Hua" policy; economy dominated by export of commodities to the export of capital-based transition. At that time, Western countries the main pattern of invasion is a common control, the United States an advantage to the Japanese during World War I temporarily dominate China. During this period, Britain France and the United States and other countries to further the development of capitalism, Russia embarked on the capitalist road. Then, the major capitalist countries began the transition to imperialism. They began to further external expansion, that is, collusion between them and scramble to the use of force and war caused by China's vast border areas of crisis, launched the Sino-Japanese War Sino-Japanese war, a war of aggression, such as Eight-Power Allied Forces invaded China. Them to large-scale exporter of capital to control the economic lifeline of China, to snatch the way mineral rights in China to provide political loans, a large-scale factories. They forcibly occupied leased territory, divided into spheres of influence, an attempt to carve up China, China as a colony changed. The U.S. "open door" policy put forward, marking the independence of the United States has been the policy of aggression against China, but also to some extent, upon the formation of the joint powers of the alliance in China. In the fight against the Boxer Rebellion, the imperialists changed the policy to divide up the implementation of the "China Zhi-Hua" strategy, first the Qing government to foster, nurture Yuan after the Revolution. During this period, the contradiction between imperialism increasingly sharp, and the three interference also Liao, the Russo-Japanese War, between the Government Hospital, Japan declared war on Germany and so is the embodiment of these contradictions.
The third stage: a post-war to the end of World War II (1919 ~ 1945). Invasion of China by foreign powers during this period is mainly from the "China Zhi-hua," to the occupation of China. At that time, first major invasion of China by the joint powers dominated exclusively by the Japanese. I. After the war, Japan and the United States become a scramble for China's major rivals, the Washington Conference of China broke the hegemony of the situation in Japan, China returned to the domination of foreign powers together. Preliminary ruling Nationalist government, the United States invasion of China in safeguarding the rights and interests of the "open door" policy, condone the Japanese invasion of China; Japan to step up implementation of the "mainland policy," launched in 1931, "September 18" incident, the formation of the Asian source of war, and in 1937 launched an all-out war of aggression against China, to form China, Japan to dominate the situation.
Phase IV: After the Second World War to the Korean War (1945 ~ 1953). This period, the imperialist invasion of China first approach "to China Zhi-Hua", after the development of isolation, blockade, siege. The major countries of aggression against China, the United States. After World War II the United States established the position of world hegemony, control of China in support of Chiang Kai-shek to fight a civil war. After the founding of new China, the United States has taken the political isolation, economic blockade, military siege and other policies, a threat to the security of our country to launch the Korean War and sent the Seventh Fleet into the Taiwan Strait to prevent the liberation of Taiwan in China.
In modern China, that is, the modernization and industrialization accompanied by industrialization and with the political, economic and cultural development and change. After the Opium War of aggression of foreign forces into China's capitalist future, it is necessary to maintain intact the feudal society impossible. Imperialist rule does not allow China to close the door forces, but also will not allow him to all remain the same. In this case, the emergence of modern China of two tendencies, one is allowed within the scope of the imperialist modernization, that is not a fundamental change in the feudal political and economic system, only in certain areas within a limited extent to the capitalist system side changes. Westernization Group on behalf of its earliest. One is the extent permitted by the imperialist breakthrough to achieve national independence, in order to achieve modernization. Is the pioneer of the bourgeois reformism. China's feudal society was not capitalist normal embryonic development, and brought China into a capitalist society because of imperialist control over China's political and economic lifeline. Of course, the invasion of foreign capitalism on the natural economy of China has played a role in the collapse of the destruction, thus contributing to the commodity economy and capitalist development factors, the Chinese national capital has the privilege of not only by the exclusion of foreign capital, and unable to stand up to China's social dominance in the former living in the capitalist system of exploitation. Imperialism on behalf of the landlord class and the comprador bureaucratic forces in the capital interests of the warlords. Feudal land relations, commercial loan sharks and all the former capital of exploitation of the capitalist system and the superstructure, as a result of imperialism and to the continued existence of the maintenance. Imperialist aggression to block China's industrialization and democratization in the path of independent development, China has become a semi-colonial At the same time, in a feudal state. Therefore, in modern China, is facing two problems: How to get rid of imperialist domination and oppression, became an independent country; how to make China's modernization. These two are closely related. The first从某种角度看，一部中国近代史，也就是中国落后挨打的屈辱史。造成这种屈辱局面的原因，一方面是西方资本主义列强对中国的侵略，另一方面是中国社会制度的落后。西方列强对中国的侵略是世界资本主义发展的必然产物，是资本主义国家开拓殖民地、争夺世界霸权的重要组成部分。列强侵华方式与特点的变化，是与整个资本主义的发展过程与矛盾息息相关的。西方列强的侵略对中国社会产生了深远的影响，既阻碍了中国近代化的步伐，同时客观上刺激了中国新的生产关系的兴起。本主题的内容可从两个方面去注意：一方面是西方资本主义发展与列强侵华的关系，一方面是列强侵华与中国社会各阶级的探索抗争、中国社会经济发展变化的关系。