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纳米材料在化工生产中的应用
纳米材料在结构、光电和化学性质等方面的诱人特征,引起物理学家、材料学家和化学家的浓厚兴趣。80年代初期纳米材料这一概念形成以后,世界各国对这种材料给予极大关注。它所具有的独特的物理和化学性质,使人们意识到它的发展可能给物理、化学、材料、生物、医药等学科的研究带来新的机遇。纳米材料的应用前景十分广阔。近年来,它在化工生产领域也得到了一定的应用,并显示出它的独特魅力。
1. 在催化方面的应用
催化剂在许多化学化工领域中起着举足轻重的作用,它可以控制反应时间、提高反应效率和反应速度。大多数传统的催化剂不仅催化效率低,而且其制备是凭经验进行,不仅造成生产原料的巨大浪费,使经济效益难以提高,而且对环境也造成污染。纳米粒子表面活性中心多,为它作催化剂提供了必要条件。纳米粒于作催化剂,可大大提高反应效率,控制反应速度,甚至使原来不能进行的反应也能进行。纳米微粒作催化剂比一般催化剂的反应速度提高10~15倍。纳米微粒作为催化剂应用较多的是半导体光催化剂,特别是在有机物制备方面。分散在溶液中的每一个半导体颗粒,可近似地看成是一个短路的微型电池,用能量大于半导体能隙的光照射半导体分散系时,半导体纳米粒子吸收光产生电子——空穴对。在电场作用下,电子与空穴分离,分别迁移到粒子表面的不同位置,与溶液中相似的组分进行氧化和还原反应。光催化反应涉及到许多反应类型,如醇与烃的氧化,无机离子氧化还原,有机物催化脱氢和加氢、氨基酸合成,固氮反应,水净化处理,水煤气变换等,其中有些是多相催化难以实现的。半导体多相光催化剂能有效地降解水中的有机污染物。例如纳米TiO2,既有较高的光催化活性,又能耐酸碱,对光稳定,无毒,便宜易得,是制备负载型光催化剂的最佳选择。已有文章报道,选用硅胶为基质,制得了催化活性较高的TiO/SiO2负载型光催化剂。Ni或Cu一Zn化合物的纳米颗粒,对某些有机化合物的氢化反应是极好的催化剂,可代替昂贵的铂或钮催化剂。纳米铂黑催化剂可使乙烯的氧化反应温度从600℃降至室温。用纳米微粒作催化剂提高反应效率、优化反应路径、提高反应速度方面的研究,是未来催化科学不可忽视的重要研究课题,很可能给催化在工业上的应用带来革命性的变革。
2008-12-11  四条棍99 发布
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    那一刀肉

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    Nano-materials in Chemical Production 
    Nano-materials in the structure of the optical and chemical properties in areas such as the attractive features, caused by physicists, chemists and materials scientists of great interest. 80 nano-materials in the early formation of the concept, countries around the world paid great attention to this material. It has the unique physical and chemical properties, so that people realize that it's possible to the development of physics, chemistry, materials, biology, medicine, and other disciplines bring new opportunities. Nano-materials are also broad prospects for application. In recent years, in the field of chemical production have been some applications, and demonstrated its unique charm. 
    1. Catalytic application 
    Many of the chemical catalysts in the chemical industry plays a pivotal role, it can control the reaction time, reaction to improve the efficiency and speed of response. Most of the traditional catalytic catalyst not only inefficient, and its preparation is the experience, not only caused great waste of raw materials to make it difficult to raise economic efficiency, but also to the environment caused by pollution. Nano-particles on the surface active center, it provided a catalyst for the necessary conditions. Nanoparticles as a catalyst to greatly improve the efficiency of the reaction to control the speed of reaction, so that even the original can not be carried out by the reaction can be carried out. Nanoparticles as a catalyst than a catalyst to improve the response rate of 10 to 15 times. Nanoparticles as a catalyst for greater application of the semiconductor photocatalyst, especially in regard to the preparation of organic matter. Dispersed in solution of each of the semiconductor particles can be seen as similar to a micro-short-circuit the battery, and use of energy is greater than the semiconductor bandgap semiconductor scattered light irradiation system, semiconductor nanoparticles have electronic absorption of light - hole right. In the electric field, and the e-hole separation, were moved to different locations on the surface of particles, and the solution is similar to the component for oxidation and reduction. Photocatalytic reaction involves the reaction of many types, such as alcohol and hydrocarbon oxidation, redox inorganic ions, organic catalytic hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, the synthesis of amino acids, nitrogen fixation reaction, water purification, water-gas shift, and so on, some of which are difficult to heterogeneous catalysis Achievable. Multi-phase semiconductor photocatalyst effective in the degradation of organic pollutants in the water. For example, nano-TiO2, both high photocatalytic activity as well as acid, light stability, non-toxic, easy to get cheap, light-load was the catalyst for the best choice. The article has been reported for the selection of silicone matrix, the system had a higher catalytic activity TiO/SiO2 supported photocatalyst. Ni or Cu-Zn nanoparticles compounds, some of the hydrogenation of organic compounds is an excellent catalyst, can replace expensive platinum catalyst or a button. Nano-platinum catalyst and enable the oxidation of ethylene temperature from room temperature down to 600 ℃. Using nanoparticles as a catalyst to improve the efficiency of reaction, the reaction path optimization to improve the response speed of research, science and catalysis in the future can not be ignored important research topic, most likely catalyst for the industrial application of the changes brought about revolutionary.

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