(287-212 B.C.).Archimedes of whole life diligence good learn, with concentration 1 dedicate a body at science, be loyal to a motherland and be subjected to respect of people with speak favorably.Archimedes once detection lever laws with is assign name to with his name of Archimedes' laws.Combine make use of these laws a design variety machine, behavior people, contribute efforts to the motherland.Concerning he usually of detailed circumstance, have already can't research.But concerning his invention creation with protect the story of motherland, spread up to now.
The establishment of lever laws
People since remote antiquity meeting usage lever, and know skillfully usage lever.At Egypt build pyramid of time, the slaves make use of lever to pry heavy piece of stone upwards. The shipbuilding worker use lever to on a ship install a mast.People use to draw water a boom to take water from the inside of the well, etc..But, why can the lever make this?Archimedes detection lever laws previous, is no one can explanation of.At that time, the philosopher have insist to say at the time of speaking of this problem, this BE"evil".Archimedes but deny is what"evil".He know, various phenomenon in the nature, total have nature of reason to explanation.The leverage also has its reason of the nature, his decision it explanation come out.Archimedes process again and again observation, experiment and calculation, finally establishment lever of balance laws.Be, "dint arm and dint(weight) become reverse ratio."In other words, be:The small weight is a big weight of how much cent it a heavy, long the dint arm should be short dint arm of how much times long.The establishment of Archimedes after the lever laws, predict to say, as long as can obtain appropriate lever length, any weight can raise with the pimping strength.It is said that that he once said so of the Hao speech strong language:
"Give me a fulcrum, I to raise the Earth for the ability!"
The Xu after pulling the king in thou hear say to Archimedes:"By dint of the Zeus(the Zeus be the king of many absolute being in Greece myth, supervisor's day, thunder, electricity and rain) take an oath, you say of the matter is really strange, Archimedes!"Archimedes to king explanation the characteristic of lever after, the king say:"Arrive where find a fulcrum, raise the Earth?"
"So of the fulcrum have no."The answer of Archimedes say.
"So call the person believe the divine power of mechanics impossible?" The king say.
"Not, not, you misunderstood, his majesty, I can give you enumerate don't of example."Archimedes say.
The king say:"You bragged too much!You and substitute my push similar and heavy thing, see the words that you speak how."The king is have the problem of a difficulty at that time, be him for Wang2 Zao4 in Egypt 1 very big of ship.The ship after build goodly mobilized Xu to pull the person of the whole city in thou, can not also push it to enter water.Archimedes say:"All right, I substitute you to push this ship."
Archimedes after leave the king make use of the son of lever and pulley reason, design, manufacturing a set of skillful of machine.After readying to everything all, Archimedes invite a king to watch argosy enter water.He hand over to the king a bitter end of heavy rope, let the king lightly pull once.Immediately, that argosy slowly move to move, successfully slippery descended Shui-li, king and big ministers to see so of miracle, good the elephant see play magic similar, astonishment not already!Hence, king letter Archimedes, and to whole country send out an announcement:"From now on and regardless Archimedes speak what, all want to believe him ……"
Measure the hard nut to crack of royal crown
In ordinary people's eyes, Archimedes be a "eccentric".The words which use historian Pu Lu tower gram in the Rome say:"His elephant is an inside the person of evil doctrine, for all of the body of meal and oneself nonchalance."Sometimes, the rice put to call him have a meal on the table, he good the elephant heard, still in the ash of the brazier painting his several sketch.His wife always watch him.Like he use the time that the oil wipe a body, then foolish sit useful oil to draw a case, but forget at the oneself body is make what matter of.His wife is more afraid to send him to arrive to take a shower in bathhouse, this joke is because of king of a new coronation but cause of.
King fore soon call a craftsman create a gold royal crown for him.The king gave craftsman he the gold of the amount for need.The handicraft of craftsman is very brilliant, make of royal crown choiceness interesting and novel, and weight heel at the beginning the gold give by king be similar and heavy.But, someone say toward the king:"Craftsman manufacturing royal crown, privately destroyed one part gold, same heavy silver Chan go in."King after listen to, also the doubt get up, seek Archimedes, his viewpoint measurement, Chan in the gold royal crown have no Chan silver, whether craftsman pocketted gold or not.This time, can Archimedes difficult live.He returned to a home bitterness to think a bitterness to think for a long time, also didn't figure out a way, everyday rice full, feel sleep not good, also don't take a shower, elephant write evil and similar.
One day, king parties person to urge him to make collective report into the temple.His wife see him too soiled, force him take a shower.He at the bathhouse take a shower of time, the brain inside still want to measure the hard nut to crack of royal crown.Suddenly, his attention arrive, be the his body sink in the bathtub of time, have a part water is from the bathtub side overflow.In the meantime, he feel to be deep more into water, his consider more light.Hence, he immediately jump a bathtub, forgot to wear clothes, run to in the street go of the crowd.Part run, part call:"I figured out to come, I figure out come, the way which solve royal crown find out!"
He enter after the imperial palace and say to the king:"Please allow me to do first an experiment, then can pair of result report give you."The approval of the king.Archimedes will with the royal crown similar and heavy gold, a cake of silver and royal crown, put one by one in water basin respectively, see water quantity that the gold bullion eject ratio silver piece the amount of water for eject be little, but the royal crown eject of water the quantity eject than the gold bullion of water quantity many.
Archimedes say to the king:"Royal crown Chan silver!"The king saw experiment and have no a lane understand, let Archimedes give explanation once.Archimedes say:"The wood of one kilogram with the iron of one kilogram comparison, the physical volume of wood be big.If put them into water respectively, the physical volume big wood eject of water quantity, eject than the physical volume small iron of water quantity many.I use this truth on the gold, silver and the royal crown.Because the density of gold be big, but the density of silver be small, so same heavy gold and silver, inevitable is the physical volume of silver big at the physical volume of gold.With same heavy gold bullion and silver piece put into water, so the gold bullion eject of water quantity ratio silver piece of the amount of water be little.The experiment that is just enunciation, the royal crown eject of water quantity ratio gold bullion many, elucidation royal crown of density ratio gold bullion of the density be small, this certificate the royal crown don't use pure gold manufacturing."Archimedes orderly relate and make king letter.Experiment result certificate, that craftsman pocketted gold.
Archimedes' this experiment is the embryo of "hydrostatics".But he don't stay around this up, continue the thorough research float the problem of body.Result detection natural science in of an importance principle-Archimedes' laws.Namely:Immerse object in a kind of liquid China Times, row open of liquid physical volume, equal an object a physical volume for dip into;The maintenance float the buoyancy of body, heel float a body row to open of the weight of the liquid equal.
A spectacular sight that is on the war history
213 B.C., the troops of Rome be lead by the Ma Er Kai road to pull a thou into the nation Xu of make Archimedes.At this time, year already 75-year-old Archimedes, also immediately spare no effort oneself of havings then can, help motherland, stroke enemy.
The Rome commander-in-chief Ma Er Kai road, continue to capture Xu to pull a thou of two city after, more extremely conceited arrogance.He think that as long as use prepare of five dayses time, can offend to sink the city that the national capital Xu pull a thou.But he exactly thoughted of, be because have an old man Archimedes of hair white of passion motherland, break his whole plan.
The be apart from now 2,190 year agos of fight, is be called by the historians:A spectacular sight that is on the war history!
The Ma Er Kai road lead tall ship, from aquatic take the offensive Xu to pull a thou.The soldier of one of his battleship material bow and arrow, sling and light Biao gun, pull Xu thou of the guarder rushed through city go to, then pass on the battleship of offend city machine, make the soldier blunt to pull into the Xu thou.But, Archimedes did full of preparation.When the enemy's fleet be close of time, Archimedes start those huge long ranges of his manufacturing to project machine.The long range project a machine ability pair of more than 200 kilograms of piece of stone, project more than 1,000 rices far.(equal to 18 centuries the artillery range of the big gun)These huge piece of stone, elephant hail ground the dozen is on the battleship, dozen the Ma Er Kai road fluster, the ship sink a soldier dead, one panic.The Ma Er Kai road have to in a great hurry withdraw the battleship for leave to walk.
The Ma Er Kai road again nighttime of decision take the offensive.He think Archimedes in nighttime see not far, etc. fleet arrive city bottom he those huge long ranges project machine to use not top.But, be the Ma Er Kai road take the offensive for nighttime of time, again poured big mildewed.The machine of the short artillery range of Archimedes started, these machines constantly threw a short Biao gun, piece of stone, make the another troops in Rome encounter heavy stroke, even the Ma Er Kai road also almost die.
The Ma Er Kai road is unwilling to give up to capture the scheme that the Xu pull a thou.He still keep pressing troops and forcing his engineers and continue to contest with Archimedes.The result is all bite on granite.Sometimes, Rome take to have blunt battleship of offend the city machine to go to Xu to pull thou of city bottom, defend city open a kind of the machine which hang "long mouth" to move, a cake of piece the rock drop down from the Qing in"long mouth", not but offend city machine dozen smash, and also hit one of battleships pulpy, make the soldier of Rome sink into place of doom.Sometimes return to let go of a kind of cleek from the city, this kind of cleek manipulate with the machine very vivid, the cleek ability hook the ship's bow of Rome naval vessel, then pull a naval vessel and make naval vessel to part turn over to pour, button up into Shui-li.
The Ma Er Kai road made to the utmost various take the offensive means, is all broken by Archimedes' invention.The Rome troops become timid as a mouse, on seeing stretch out a cordage from the over the wall, flee ignominiously to try very hard to escape, and yell:"Archimedes used a kind of machine again to teased us!"
The Ma Er Kai road end had no way, have to pull the city of the thou the Xu round and round to surround and wildly the diagram trap a town people dead.His this kind of way, make Archimedes also incapable is a dint.The Rome troops had been besieging for eight months, the end multiplied by Xu to pull the ancients to spend joyfully festival, but the Shu go in from a deserted city gate sneak attack at the opportunity for guard against and just pull Xu thou offend to sink.
When the Rome troops be blunt to go into the city of time, the Ma Er Kai road once issued order and don't kill this great of physicist.But that time, Archimedes just at his laboratory inside painting his sketch.After soldier is blunt to enter, the feet stepped a voice to trouble him.This kind of trouble, make him surprised to wake up and indignantly shout a way:"Feed!You broke my picture and hurry up to leave!"Result, his excited and bitter provocation soldier in the Rome, Archimedes then die in knife bottom.
Although great physicist Archimedes died in an accident, , he does to the mankind on science of contribute, can't estimate!