kai take是什么

kai take是什么
09-03-19  匿名提问 发布
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    (287-212 B.C.).Archimedes of whole life diligence good learn, with concentration 1 dedicate a body at science, be loyal to a motherland and be subjected to respect of people with speak favorably.Archimedes once detection lever laws with is assign name to with his name of Archimedes' laws.Combine make use of these laws a design variety machine, behavior people, contribute efforts to the motherland.Concerning he usually of detailed circumstance, have already can't research.But concerning his invention creation with protect the story of motherland, spread up to now.

    The establishment of lever laws

    People since remote antiquity meeting usage lever, and know skillfully usage lever.At Egypt build pyramid of time, the slaves make use of lever to pry heavy piece of stone upwards. The shipbuilding worker use lever to on a ship install a mast.People use to draw water a boom to take water from the inside of the well, etc..But, why can the lever make this?Archimedes detection lever laws previous, is no one can explanation of.At that time, the philosopher have insist to say at the time of speaking of this problem, this BE"evil".Archimedes but deny is what"evil".He know, various phenomenon in the nature, total have nature of reason to explanation.The leverage also has its reason of the nature, his decision it explanation come out.Archimedes process again and again observation, experiment and calculation, finally establishment lever of balance laws.Be, "dint arm and dint(weight) become reverse ratio."In other words, be:The small weight is a big weight of how much cent it a heavy, long the dint arm should be short dint arm of how much times long.The establishment of Archimedes after the lever laws, predict to say, as long as can obtain appropriate lever length, any weight can raise with the pimping strength.It is said that that he once said so of the Hao speech strong language:

    "Give me a fulcrum, I to raise the Earth for the ability!"

    The Xu after pulling the king in thou hear say to Archimedes:"By dint of the Zeus(the Zeus be the king of many absolute being in Greece myth, supervisor's day, thunder, electricity and rain) take an oath, you say of the matter is really strange, Archimedes!"Archimedes to king explanation the characteristic of lever after, the king say:"Arrive where find a fulcrum, raise the Earth?"

    "So of the fulcrum have no."The answer of Archimedes say.

    "So call the person believe the divine power of mechanics impossible?" The king say.

    "Not, not, you misunderstood, his majesty, I can give you enumerate don't of example."Archimedes say.

    The king say:"You bragged too much!You and substitute my push similar and heavy thing, see the words that you speak how."The king is have the problem of a difficulty at that time, be him for Wang2 Zao4 in Egypt 1 very big of ship.The ship after build goodly mobilized Xu to pull the person of the whole city in thou, can not also push it to enter water.Archimedes say:"All right, I substitute you to push this ship."

    Archimedes after leave the king make use of the son of lever and pulley reason, design, manufacturing a set of skillful of machine.After readying to everything all, Archimedes invite a king to watch argosy enter water.He hand over to the king a bitter end of heavy rope, let the king lightly pull once.Immediately, that argosy slowly move to move, successfully slippery descended Shui-li, king and big ministers to see so of miracle, good the elephant see play magic similar, astonishment not already!Hence, king letter Archimedes, and to whole country send out an announcement:"From now on and regardless Archimedes speak what, all want to believe him ……"

    Measure the hard nut to crack of royal crown

    In ordinary people's eyes, Archimedes be a "eccentric".The words which use historian Pu Lu tower gram in the Rome say:"His elephant is an inside the person of evil doctrine, for all of the body of meal and oneself nonchalance."Sometimes, the rice put to call him have a meal on the table, he good the elephant heard, still in the ash of the brazier painting his several sketch.His wife always watch him.Like he use the time that the oil wipe a body, then foolish sit useful oil to draw a case, but forget at the oneself body is make what matter of.His wife is more afraid to send him to arrive to take a shower in bathhouse, this joke is because of king of a new coronation but cause of.

    King fore soon call a craftsman create a gold royal crown for him.The king gave craftsman he the gold of the amount for need.The handicraft of craftsman is very brilliant, make of royal crown choiceness interesting and novel, and weight heel at the beginning the gold give by king be similar and heavy.But, someone say toward the king:"Craftsman manufacturing royal crown, privately destroyed one part gold, same heavy silver Chan go in."King after listen to, also the doubt get up, seek Archimedes, his viewpoint measurement, Chan in the gold royal crown have no Chan silver, whether craftsman pocketted gold or not.This time, can Archimedes difficult live.He returned to a home bitterness to think a bitterness to think for a long time, also didn't figure out a way, everyday rice full, feel sleep not good, also don't take a shower, elephant write evil and similar.

    One day, king parties person to urge him to make collective report into the temple.His wife see him too soiled, force him take a shower.He at the bathhouse take a shower of time, the brain inside still want to measure the hard nut to crack of royal crown.Suddenly, his attention arrive, be the his body sink in the bathtub of time, have a part water is from the bathtub side overflow.In the meantime, he feel to be deep more into water, his consider more light.Hence, he immediately jump a bathtub, forgot to wear clothes, run to in the street go of the crowd.Part run, part call:"I figured out to come, I figure out come, the way which solve royal crown find out!"

    He enter after the imperial palace and say to the king:"Please allow me to do first an experiment, then can pair of result report give you."The approval of the king.Archimedes will with the royal crown similar and heavy gold, a cake of silver and royal crown, put one by one in water basin respectively, see water quantity that the gold bullion eject ratio silver piece the amount of water for eject be little, but the royal crown eject of water the quantity eject than the gold bullion of water quantity many.

    Archimedes say to the king:"Royal crown Chan silver!"The king saw experiment and have no a lane understand, let Archimedes give explanation once.Archimedes say:"The wood of one kilogram with the iron of one kilogram comparison, the physical volume of wood be big.If put them into water respectively, the physical volume big wood eject of water quantity, eject than the physical volume small iron of water quantity many.I use this truth on the gold, silver and the royal crown.Because the density of gold be big, but the density of silver be small, so same heavy gold and silver, inevitable is the physical volume of silver big at the physical volume of gold.With same heavy gold bullion and silver piece put into water, so the gold bullion eject of water quantity ratio silver piece of the amount of water be little.The experiment that is just enunciation, the royal crown eject of water quantity ratio gold bullion many, elucidation royal crown of density ratio gold bullion of the density be small, this certificate the royal crown don't use pure gold manufacturing."Archimedes orderly relate and make king letter.Experiment result certificate, that craftsman pocketted gold.

    Archimedes' this experiment is the embryo of "hydrostatics".But he don't stay around this up, continue the thorough research float the problem of body.Result detection natural science in of an importance principle-Archimedes' laws.Namely:Immerse object in a kind of liquid China Times, row open of liquid physical volume, equal an object a physical volume for dip into;The maintenance float the buoyancy of body, heel float a body row to open of the weight of the liquid equal.

    A spectacular sight that is on the war history

    213 B.C., the troops of Rome be lead by the Ma Er Kai road to pull a thou into the nation Xu of make Archimedes.At this time, year already 75-year-old Archimedes, also immediately spare no effort oneself of havings then can, help motherland, stroke enemy.

    The Rome commander-in-chief Ma Er Kai road, continue to capture Xu to pull a thou of two city after, more extremely conceited arrogance.He think that as long as use prepare of five dayses time, can offend to sink the city that the national capital Xu pull a thou.But he exactly thoughted of, be because have an old man Archimedes of hair white of passion motherland, break his whole plan.

    The be apart from now 2,190 year agos of fight, is be called by the historians:A spectacular sight that is on the war history!

    The Ma Er Kai road lead tall ship, from aquatic take the offensive Xu to pull a thou.The soldier of one of his battleship material bow and arrow, sling and light Biao gun, pull Xu thou of the guarder rushed through city go to, then pass on the battleship of offend city machine, make the soldier blunt to pull into the Xu thou.But, Archimedes did full of preparation.When the enemy's fleet be close of time, Archimedes start those huge long ranges of his manufacturing to project machine.The long range project a machine ability pair of more than 200 kilograms of piece of stone, project more than 1,000 rices far.(equal to 18 centuries the artillery range of the big gun)These huge piece of stone, elephant hail ground the dozen is on the battleship, dozen the Ma Er Kai road fluster, the ship sink a soldier dead, one panic.The Ma Er Kai road have to in a great hurry withdraw the battleship for leave to walk.

    The Ma Er Kai road again nighttime of decision take the offensive.He think Archimedes in nighttime see not far, etc. fleet arrive city bottom he those huge long ranges project machine to use not top.But, be the Ma Er Kai road take the offensive for nighttime of time, again poured big mildewed.The machine of the short artillery range of Archimedes started, these machines constantly threw a short Biao gun, piece of stone, make the another troops in Rome encounter heavy stroke, even the Ma Er Kai road also almost die.

    The Ma Er Kai road is unwilling to give up to capture the scheme that the Xu pull a thou.He still keep pressing troops and forcing his engineers and continue to contest with Archimedes.The result is all bite on granite.Sometimes, Rome take to have blunt battleship of offend the city machine to go to Xu to pull thou of city bottom, defend city open a kind of the machine which hang "long mouth" to move, a cake of piece the rock drop down from the Qing in"long mouth", not but offend city machine dozen smash, and also hit one of battleships pulpy, make the soldier of Rome sink into place of doom.Sometimes return to let go of a kind of cleek from the city, this kind of cleek manipulate with the machine very vivid, the cleek ability hook the ship's bow of Rome naval vessel, then pull a naval vessel and make naval vessel to part turn over to pour, button up into Shui-li.

    The Ma Er Kai road made to the utmost various take the offensive means, is all broken by Archimedes' invention.The Rome troops become timid as a mouse, on seeing stretch out a cordage from the over the wall, flee ignominiously to try very hard to escape, and yell:"Archimedes used a kind of machine again to teased us!"

    The Ma Er Kai road end had no way, have to pull the city of the thou the Xu round and round to surround and wildly the diagram trap a town people dead.His this kind of way, make Archimedes also incapable is a dint.The Rome troops had been besieging for eight months, the end multiplied by Xu to pull the ancients to spend joyfully festival, but the Shu go in from a deserted city gate sneak attack at the opportunity for guard against and just pull Xu thou offend to sink.

    When the Rome troops be blunt to go into the city of time, the Ma Er Kai road once issued order and don't kill this great of physicist.But that time, Archimedes just at his laboratory inside painting his sketch.After soldier is blunt to enter, the feet stepped a voice to trouble him.This kind of trouble, make him surprised to wake up and indignantly shout a way:"Feed!You broke my picture and hurry up to leave!"Result, his excited and bitter provocation soldier in the Rome, Archimedes then die in knife bottom.

    Although great physicist Archimedes died in an accident, , he does to the mankind on science of contribute, can't estimate!
    二千一百九十年前,在古希腊西西里岛的叙拉古国,出现一位伟大的物理学家。他叫阿基米德(公元前287——212年)。阿基米德的一生勤奋好学,专心一志地献身于科学,忠于祖国,受到人们的尊敬与赞扬。阿基米德曾发现杠杆定律和以他的名字命名的阿基米德定律。并利用这些定律设计了多种机械,为人民、为祖国服务。关于他生平的详细情况,已无法考证。但关于他发明创造和保卫祖国的故事,却流传至今。

    杠杆定律的确立

    人们从远古时代起就会使用杠杆,并且懂得巧妙地运用杠杆。在埃及造金字塔的时候,奴隶们就利用杠杆把沉重的石块往上撬。造船工人用杠杆在船上架设桅杆。人们用汲水吊杆从井里取水,等等。但是,杠杆为什么能做到这一点呢?在阿基米德发现杠杆定律之前,是没有人能够解释的。当时,有的哲学家在谈到这个问题的时候,一口咬定说,这是“魔性”。阿基米德却不承认是什么“魔性”。他懂得,自然界里的种种现象,总有自然的原因来解释。杠杆作用也有它自然的原因,他决心把它解释出来。阿基米德经过反复地观察、实验和计算,终于确立了杠杆的平衡定律。就是,“力臂和力(重量)成反比例。” 换句话说,就是:小重量是大重量的多少分之一重,长力臂就应当是短力臂的多少倍长。阿基米德确立了杠杆定律后,就推断说,只要能够取得适当的杠杆长度,任何重量都可以用很小的力量举起来。据说他曾经说过这样的豪言壮语:

    “给我一个支点、我就能举起地球!”

    叙拉古国王听说后,对阿基米德说:“凭着宙斯(宙斯是希腊神话中的众神之王,主管天、雷、电和雨)起誓,你说的事真是稀奇古怪,阿基米德!”阿基米德向国王解释了杠杆的特性以后,国王说:“到哪里去找一个支点,把地球举起来呢?”

    “这样的支点是没有的。”阿基米德回答说。

    “那么,要叫人相信力学的神力就不可能了?” 国王说。

    “不,不,你误会了,陛下,我能够给你举出别的例子。”阿基米德说。

    国王说:“你太吹牛了!你且替我推动一样重的东西,看你讲的话怎样。”当时国王正有一个困难的问题,就是他替埃及王造了一艘很大的船。船造好后,动员了叙拉古全城的人,也没法把它推下水。阿基米德说:“好吧,我替你来推这一只船吧。”

    阿基米德离开国王后,就利用杠杆和滑轮的子理,设计、制造了一套巧妙的机械。把一切都准备好后,阿基米德请国王来观看大船下水。他把一根粗绳的末端交给国王,让国王轻轻拉一下。顿时,那艘大船慢慢移动起来,顺利地滑下了水里,国王和大臣们看到这样的奇迹,好象看耍魔术一样,惊奇不已!于是,国王信服了阿基米德,并向全国发出布告:“从此以后,无论阿基米德讲什么,都要相信他……”

    称量皇冠的难题

    在一般人看来,阿基米德是个“怪人”。用罗马历史学家普鲁塔克的话说:“他象是一个中了邪术的人,对于饭食和自己的身体全不关心。”有时候,饭摆在桌子上叫他吃饭,他好象没听见,仍旧在火盆的灰里画他的几何图形。他的妻子,要时时看守他。譬如他用油擦身的时候,便呆坐着用油在自己身上画图案,而忘记原来是作什么事的了。他的妻子更怕送他到浴堂里去洗澡,这个笑话是因为国王的一个新冠冕而引起的。

    国王在前不久,叫一个工匠替他打造一顶金皇冠。国王给了工匠他所需要的数量的黄金。工匠的手艺非常高明,制做的皇冠精巧别致,而且重量跟当初国王所给的黄金一样重。可是,有人向国王报告说:“工匠制造皇冠时,私下吞没了一部分黄金,把同样重的银子掺了进去。”国王听后,也怀疑起来,就把阿基米德找来,要他想法测定,金皇冠里掺没掺银子,工匠是否私吞黄金了。这次,可把阿基米德难住了。他回到家里苦思苦想了好久,也没有想出办法,每天饭吃不下,觉睡不好,也不洗澡,象着了魔一样。

    有一天,国王派人来催他进宫汇报。他妻子看他太脏了,就逼他去洗澡。他在澡堂洗澡的时候,脑子里还想着称量皇冠的难题。突然,他注意到,当他的身体在浴盆里沉下去的时候,就有一部分水从浴盆边溢出来。同时,他觉得入水愈深,则他的体量愈轻。于是,他立刻跳出浴盆,忘了穿衣服,就跑到人群的街上去了。一边跑,一边叫:“我想出来了,我想出来了,解决皇冠的办法找到啦!”

    他进皇宫后,对国王说:“请允许我先做一个实验,才能把结果报告给你。”国王同意了。阿基米德将与皇冠一样重的金子、一块银子和皇冠,分别一一放在水盆里,看金块排出的水量比银块排出的水量少,而皇冠排出的水量比金块排出的水量多。

    阿基米德对国王说:“皇冠掺了银子!”国王看了实验,没有弄明白,让阿基米德给解释一下。阿基米德说:“一公斤的木头和一公斤的铁比较,木头的体积大。如果分别把它们放入水中,体积大的木头排出的水量,比体积小的铁排出的水量多。我把这个道理用在金子、银子和皇冠上。因为金子的密度大,而银子的密度小,因此同样重的金子和银子,必然是银子的体积大于金子的体积。所以同样重的金块和银块放入水中,那么金块排出的水量就比银块的水量少。刚才的实验表明,皇冠排出的水量比金块多,说明皇冠的密度比金块的密度小,这就证明皇冠不是用纯金制造的。”阿基米德有条理的讲述,使国王信服了。实验结果证明,那个工匠私吞了黄金。

    阿基米德的这个实验,就是“静水力学”的胚胎。但他并不停留在这一点上,继续深入研究浮体的问题。结果发现了自然科学中的一个重要原理——阿基米德定律。即:把物体浸在一种液体中时,所排开的液体体积,等于物体所浸入的体积;维持浮体的浮力, 跟浮体所排开的液体的重量相等。

    战争史上的一个奇观

    公元前213年,罗马的军队由玛尔凯路率领进犯阿基米德的国家叙拉古。这时,年已七十五岁的阿基米德,也立刻竭尽自己的所有才能,帮助祖国,打击敌人。

    罗马统帅玛尔凯路,接连攻下叙拉古的两座城后,更加狂妄自大。他认为,只要用五天的准备时间,就可以攻陷国都叙拉古城。但他恰恰没有想到,就是因为有一位热爱祖国的白发苍苍的老人阿基米德,就把他的一切计划打破了。

    这场距今二千一百九十年前的战斗,被历史学家们称为:战争史上的一个奇观!

    玛尔凯路率领着船队,从水上进攻叙拉古。他的每只战舰上的士兵都装备着弓箭、投石器和轻镖枪,要把叙拉古的守卫者赶下城去,然后通过架在战舰上的攻城机,让士兵冲进叙拉古。可是,阿基米德做了充分的准备。当敌人的舰队接近的时候,阿基米德就开动他制造的那些巨大的远程投射机器。远程投射机器能把二百多公斤的石块,投射一千多米远(相当于18世纪大炮的射程)。这些巨大的石块,象冰雹似地打在战舰上,打得玛尔凯路手忙脚乱,船沉兵死,一片惊慌。玛尔凯路只得急急忙忙把剩下的战舰撤走。

    玛尔凯路又决定夜间进攻。他以为夜间阿基米德看不远,等舰队到了城下他那些巨大的远程投射机器就用不上了。可是,当玛尔凯路夜间进攻的时候,又倒了大霉。阿基米德短射程的机器开动了,这些机器不断地投掷出短镖枪、石块,使罗马军队又一次遭到沉重打击,连玛尔凯路也差一点丧命。

    玛尔凯路不甘心放弃占领叙拉古的企图。他还是催促军队和强迫他的工程师们,继续同阿基米德较量。结果,都是徒劳。有时,罗马把带有攻城机的战舰冲到叙拉古的城下,守城者就把一种挂着“长嘴”的机器开动起来,一块块石头从“长嘴”里倾落下来,不但把攻城机打得粉碎,而且也把战舰砸个稀烂,使罗马的士兵陷入绝境。有时,还从城上放下一种铁钩,这种铁钩用机器操纵着十分灵活,铁钩能钩住罗马兵船的船头,然后把兵船拉起来,使兵船向一边翻倒,扣进水里。

    玛尔凯路使尽了各种进攻手段,都被阿基米德的发明打破了。罗马军队变得胆小如鼠,一看见从墙头上伸出条绳子,就抱头鼠窜拼命逃跑,并叫喊着:“阿基米德又使出一种机器来作弄我们了!”

    玛尔凯路最后没有办法了,只得把叙拉古城团团围住,妄图把城里的人困死。他的这种办法,使得阿基米德也无能为力了。罗马 军队一直围困了八个月,最后乘叙拉古人欢度节日,而疏于防范的机会,从一个冷僻的城门偷袭进去,才把叙拉古攻陷。

    当罗马军队冲进城的时候,玛尔凯路曾下令不要杀害这位伟大的物理学家。可是那时,阿基米德正在他的实验室里画他的图形。士兵冲进后,脚踏声惊扰了他。这种惊扰,使他惊醒过来,愤怒地喊道:“喂!你弄坏了我的图画,赶快跑开些!”结果,他的愤慨激怒了罗马士兵,阿基米德便死于刀下。

    伟大的物理学家阿基米德虽然遇难了,但是,他在科学上给人类做出的贡献,是无法估量的!

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