七年级下历史期中试卷

七年级下历史期中试卷
09-04-16  匿名提问 发布
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  • 1

    02899

    单项选择题
    1.在下列远古人类中,主要还使用打制的石器和木棒,但已经懂得磨制和钻孔技术的是
    A.元谋人 B.北京人  C.山顶洞人  D.半坡人
    2.我们说元谋人已经是人了,最主要的根据是
    A.会直立行走 B.会制造工具C.会自己的语言D.会使用工具
    3.世界上的农作物最早在我国开始种植的是
    A.水稻、棉花 B.水稻、粟  C.水稻、玉米 D.粟、烟草
    4.我国原始居民中,出现了私有财产和贫富分化的是
    A.山顶洞人 B.半坡居民C.大汶口早期居民D.大汶口中晚期居民
    5.我国有文字可考的历史开始于:
    A、夏          B、商         C、西周        D、春秋
    6.右图的数学等式反映了谁的悲惨生活:

    A、奴隶    B、奴隶主      C、农民      D、地主
    7.世界天文史上最早的哈雷彗星的记录出现在我国的
    A.夏朝 B.商朝 C.西周 D.春秋
    8.“春秋五霸”中,提出“尊王攘夷”口号的是
    A.齐桓公 B.晋文公 C.越王 D.楚庄王
    9.春秋时期,我国在生产工具方面的变革主要是
    A.牛耕的出现 B.铁制农具的出现C.耧车的出现D.提花机的出现
    10.战国时,提出建立君主专制中央集权封建国家主张的思想家是
    A.墨子 B.孟子 C.庄子 D.韩非子
    11.中国历史上第一个统一的中央集权的封建国家是
    A.夏朝 B.秦朝 C.西汉 D.西晋
    12.秦始皇实行“焚书坑儒”,这一件事件带来的最严重后果是
    A.使很多人被杀 B.很多文化典籍被毁坏
    C.极大钳制了人们的思想 D.在当时造成恐怖气氛
    13.西周的众多诸侯产生方式是:
    A、奴隶制     B、禅让制          C、分封制         D、世袭制
    14.西汉前期出现的盛世局面是
    A.“文景之治” B.“光武中兴” C.“汉武盛世” D.“开元盛世”
    15.儒家学说成为我国封建文化的正统思想开始于
    A.秦孝公时期 B.秦始皇时期 C.汉武帝时期 D.汉明帝时期
    16.发明于西汉时期的播种工具是
    A.犁壁 B.水排 C.耧车 D.耕犁
    17下面发生在秦汉时期的历史事件中,使匈奴不能再与西汉抗衡的是
    A.秦派大将蒙恬大举反击匈奴,夺取河套地区
    B.公元前119年卫青、霍去病大败匈奴
    C.汉武帝派兵攻打匈奴,夺得河套地区
    D.东汉时期窦固、窦宪出击北匈奴
    18.最早出现用于书写和绘图的纸,是在我国的
    A.战国时期 B.秦朝 C.西汉 D.东汉
    19.道教在我国民间兴起是在
    A.秦朝 B.西汉   C.东汉   D.三国时期
    20. “因材施教”体现的是谁的教育思想:
    A.孔子            B.老子           C.孙子          D. 墨子
    21. 秦统一后,规定全国统一使用的货币是
    A、       B、           C、          D、
    22.东晋南朝江南地区经济得以迅速开发的主要原因是
    A.社会相对安定 B.南方自然条件好
    C.南方统治者施行仁 D.北方农民南迁,带来先进的农业技术
    23.下列几次战役,不属于以少胜多的是
    A.城濮之战 B.官渡之战 C.赤壁之战 D.白登之役
    24.三国时期吴国较为发达的手工业是
    A.丝织业   B.造船业 C.制瓷业 D.制茶叶
    25.北魏是下列哪个少数民族建立的政权
    A.羯族 B.鲜卑族 C.羌族 D.匈奴
    26.为我国西部地区的开发做出了杰出贡献的有
    ①李冰 ②张骞 ③蒙恬 ④诸葛亮
    A.①②③④ B.①②③ C.②③④ D.①②④
    27.下列各项按先后顺序排列正确的是
    ①贾思勰著《齐民要术》 ②佛教传入我国 ③屈原创作《离骚》 ④司马迁著《史记》
    A.①②③④ B.②①③④ C.③④①② D.③④②①
    28.祖冲之在世界上第一次把圆周率数值精确到小数点以后第7位数字,这比欧洲要早
    A.500年 B.700年 C.近1000年 D.1900年
    29.《水经注》的作者是
    A.郦道元 B.贾思勰   C.祖冲之 D.张衡
    30. 有位同学暑假想要实地考察“昭君出塞”的历史遗迹,请你告诉他应该去哪一城市是:
    A. 开封        B. 咸阳          C. 南京        D. 呼和浩特
    选择题(答题卡)
    题号 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
    答案
    题号 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
    答案
    题号 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    答案
    二、论从史出
    31.“人固有一死,或有重于泰山,或轻于鸿毛。” 
    阅读材料回答:
    (1)这是谁的名言?他生活在哪个朝代?


    (2)作者有什么对后世产生深远影响的著作?我们如何评价这本书?



    32. 阅读下列材料和路线图回答问题:
    材料一:公元前1世纪的某一天,古罗马的执政官凯撒大帝穿着灿若朝霞的丝织长袍进入剧场,在场的百官以及贵夫人们惊叹声此起彼伏,觉得凯撒大帝简直“帅呆”了。于是穿中国 锦衣绣服,成为当时男女贵族的流行时尚。
    材料二:下图是古代著名中西陆上交通示意图

    ⑴凯撒大帝的丝袍是通过材料二中的这条中西通道得到的,请说出这条通道的:
    名称:          (2分) ,当时东起中国         (1分) ,西至         (1分) 。
    ⑵图中这条通道在当时发挥了什么作用(4分)?



    ⑶这条通道对我们今天的现实生活还有价值吗(1分)?说出你的理由(4分)



    三、简答题
    33.有人说秦始皇是“千古一帝”,也有人说他是一个地地道道的暴君,你同意哪种说法?或者你还有第三种看法,请说出来,并要说出为什么。





    34.商鞅变法与北魏孝文帝改革在背景、结果、作用方面有什么相同或不同的地方?







    35.在秦朝,秦始皇让老百姓大规模兴修长城,引起了老百姓的不满,在当时就流传着孟姜女哭长城的故事,如果你是当时的老百姓,你会为秦始皇修长城吗?为什么?




    镇川中学七年级历史题答案
    选择题(答题卡)
    题号 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
    答案 C     B B D B A C A B D
    题号 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
    答案 B C   C A C C B C C A
    题号 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    答案 D D D B B D D C A D

    二、31.(1)司马迁。西汉。
    (2)《史记》。它是我国第一部纪体传体通史,又是一部优秀的文学著作。它还是后世纪传体史书的典范。
    32. ⑴丝绸之路(2分)  长安(1分)  大秦(1分)
    ⑵促进了中外(或东西方)经济(2分)和文化交流(2分)
    ⑶有(1分)  理由:例①丝绸之路在今天仍是中西交往重要交通通道(2分)
    ②丝绸之路在我国当今对外经济文化交流中仍然发挥着重要作用(2分)
    (只要言之有理,并正确表述两层符合题意的相关理由即可得分)
    三、33.提示:认为他是千古一帝的,要说出他对中国历史发展做出的贡献;认为他是暴君的主要说出他对人民实施了哪些暴政。
    34.背景:商鞅变法是战国时期,随着生产力的发展,产生了新兴的地主阶级和农民阶级。地主阶级为确立封建统治,发展封建经济,而进行变法,而北魏孝文帝改革主要使北方出现了民族大融合的趋势。
    结果是相同的,都成功了。
    作用:商鞅变法促进了秦国封建经济的发展和军队战斗力的加强,为秦统一全国打下了物质基础。北魏孝文帝改革也促进了北方经济的发展。不同:孝文帝改革还促进了北方的民族大融合,加速了北方少数民族封建化的进程。
    35.会。因为长城的修筑,抵御了匈奴的进攻,保护了中原人民经济、文化的正常发展。

    09-04-16 | 添加评论 | 打赏

    评论读取中....

  • 0

    郭ba

    单项选择题
    1.在下列远古人类中,主要还使用打制的石器和木棒,但已经懂得磨制和钻孔技术的是
    A.元谋人 B.北京人  C.山顶洞人  D.半坡人
    2.我们说元谋人已经是人了,最主要的根据是
    A.会直立行走 B.会制造工具C.会自己的语言D.会使用工具
    3.世界上的农作物最早在我国开始种植的是
    A.水稻、棉花 B.水稻、粟  C.水稻、玉米 D.粟、烟草
    4.我国原始居民中,出现了私有财产和贫富分化的是
    A.山顶洞人 B.半坡居民C.大汶口早期居民D.大汶口中晚期居民
    5.我国有文字可考的历史开始于:
    A、夏          B、商         C、西周        D、春秋
    6.右图的数学等式反映了谁的悲惨生活:

    A、奴隶    B、奴隶主      C、农民      D、地主
    7.世界天文史上最早的哈雷彗星的记录出现在我国的
    A.夏朝 B.商朝 C.西周 D.春秋
    8.“春秋五霸”中,提出“尊王攘夷”口号的是
    A.齐桓公 B.晋文公 C.越王 D.楚庄王
    9.春秋时期,我国在生产工具方面的变革主要是
    A.牛耕的出现 B.铁制农具的出现C.耧车的出现D.提花机的出现
    10.战国时,提出建立君主专制中央集权封建国家主张的思想家是
    A.墨子 B.孟子 C.庄子 D.韩非子
    11.中国历史上第一个统一的中央集权的封建国家是
    A.夏朝 B.秦朝 C.西汉 D.西晋
    12.秦始皇实行“焚书坑儒”,这一件事件带来的最严重后果是
    A.使很多人被杀 B.很多文化典籍被毁坏
    C.极大钳制了人们的思想 D.在当时造成恐怖气氛
    13.西周的众多诸侯产生方式是:
    A、奴隶制     B、禅让制          C、分封制         D、世袭制
    14.西汉前期出现的盛世局面是
    A.“文景之治” B.“光武中兴” C.“汉武盛世” D.“开元盛世”
    15.儒家学说成为我国封建文化的正统思想开始于
    A.秦孝公时期 B.秦始皇时期 C.汉武帝时期 D.汉明帝时期
    16.发明于西汉时期的播种工具是
    A.犁壁 B.水排 C.耧车 D.耕犁
    17下面发生在秦汉时期的历史事件中,使匈奴不能再与西汉抗衡的是
    A.秦派大将蒙恬大举反击匈奴,夺取河套地区
    B.公元前119年卫青、霍去病大败匈奴
    C.汉武帝派兵攻打匈奴,夺得河套地区
    D.东汉时期窦固、窦宪出击北匈奴
    18.最早出现用于书写和绘图的纸,是在我国的
    A.战国时期 B.秦朝 C.西汉 D.东汉
    19.道教在我国民间兴起是在
    A.秦朝 B.西汉   C.东汉   D.三国时期
    20. “因材施教”体现的是谁的教育思想:
    A.孔子            B.老子           C.孙子          D. 墨子
    21. 秦统一后,规定全国统一使用的货币是
    A、       B、           C、          D、
    22.东晋南朝江南地区经济得以迅速开发的主要原因是
    A.社会相对安定 B.南方自然条件好
    C.南方统治者施行仁 D.北方农民南迁,带来先进的农业技术
    23.下列几次战役,不属于以少胜多的是
    A.城濮之战 B.官渡之战 C.赤壁之战 D.白登之役
    24.三国时期吴国较为发达的手工业是
    A.丝织业   B.造船业 C.制瓷业 D.制茶叶
    25.北魏是下列哪个少数民族建立的政权
    A.羯族 B.鲜卑族 C.羌族 D.匈奴
    26.为我国西部地区的开发做出了杰出贡献的有
    ①李冰 ②张骞 ③蒙恬 ④诸葛亮
    A.①②③④ B.①②③ C.②③④ D.①②④
    27.下列各项按先后顺序排列正确的是
    ①贾思勰著《齐民要术》 ②佛教传入我国 ③屈原创作《离骚》 ④司马迁著《史记》
    A.①②③④ B.②①③④ C.③④①② D.③④②①
    28.祖冲之在世界上第一次把圆周率数值精确到小数点以后第7位数字,这比欧洲要早
    A.500年 B.700年 C.近1000年 D.1900年
    29.《水经注》的作者是
    A.郦道元 B.贾思勰   C.祖冲之 D.张衡
    30. 有位同学暑假想要实地考察“昭君出塞”的历史遗迹,请你告诉他应该去哪一城市是:
    A. 开封        B. 咸阳          C. 南京        D. 呼和浩特
    选择题(答题卡)
    题号 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
    答案
    题号 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
    答案
    题号 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    答案
    二、论从史出
    31.“人固有一死,或有重于泰山,或轻于鸿毛。” 
    阅读材料回答:
    (1)这是谁的名言?他生活在哪个朝代?


    (2)作者有什么对后世产生深远影响的著作?我们如何评价这本书?



    32. 阅读下列材料和路线图回答问题:
    材料一:公元前1世纪的某一天,古罗马的执政官凯撒大帝穿着灿若朝霞的丝织长袍进入剧场,在场的百官以及贵夫人们惊叹声此起彼伏,觉得凯撒大帝简直“帅呆”了。于是穿中国 锦衣绣服,成为当时男女贵族的流行时尚。
    材料二:下图是古代著名中西陆上交通示意图

    ⑴凯撒大帝的丝袍是通过材料二中的这条中西通道得到的,请说出这条通道的:
    名称:          (2分) ,当时东起中国         (1分) ,西至         (1分) 。
    ⑵图中这条通道在当时发挥了什么作用(4分)?



    ⑶这条通道对我们今天的现实生活还有价值吗(1分)?说出你的理由(4分)



    三、简答题
    33.有人说秦始皇是“千古一帝”,也有人说他是一个地地道道的暴君,你同意哪种说法?或者你还有第三种看法,请说出来,并要说出为什么。





    34.商鞅变法与北魏孝文帝改革在背景、结果、作用方面有什么相同或不同的地方?







    35.在秦朝,秦始皇让老百姓大规模兴修长城,引起了老百姓的不满,在当时就流传着孟姜女哭长城的故事,如果你是当时的老百姓,你会为秦始皇修长城吗?为什么?




    镇川中学七年级历史题答案
    选择题(答题卡)
    题号 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
    答案 C     B B D B A C A B D
    题号 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
    答案 B C   C A C C B C C A
    题号 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    答案 D D D B B D D C A D

    二、31.(1)司马迁。西汉。
    (2)《史记》。它是我国第一部纪体传体通史,又是一部优秀的文学著作。它还是后世纪传体史书的典范。
    32. ⑴丝绸之路(2分)  长安(1分)  大秦(1分)
    ⑵促进了中外(或东西方)经济(2分)和文化交流(2分)
    ⑶有(1分)  理由:例①丝绸之路在今天仍是中西交往重要交通通道(2分)
    ②丝绸之路在我国当今对外经济文化交流中仍然发挥着重要作用(2分)
    (只要言之有理,并正确表述两层符合题意的相关理由即可得分)
    三、33.提示:认为他是千古一帝的,要说出他对中国历史发展做出的贡献;认为他是暴君的主要说出他对人民实施了哪些暴政。
    34.背景:商鞅变法是战国时期,随着生产力的发展,产生了新兴的地主阶级和农民阶级。地主阶级为确立封建统治,发展封建经济,而进行变法,而北魏孝文帝改革主要使北方出现了民族大融合的趋势。
    结果是相同的,都成功了。
    作用:商鞅变法促进了秦国封建经济的发展和军队战斗力的加强,为秦统一全国打下了物质基础。北魏孝文帝改革也促进了北方经济的发展。不同:孝文帝改革还促进了北方的民族大融合,加速了北方少数民族封建化的进程。
    35.会。因为长城的修筑,抵御了匈奴的进攻,保护了中原人民经济、文化的正常发展。

    09-04-16 | 添加评论 | 打赏

    评论读取中....

  • 0

    weixian610

      汉朝是中国历史上继短暂的秦朝4465465之后出现的朝代,分为“西汉”(前202年—8年)与“东汉”(公元25年—公元220年)两个历史时期,后世史学家亦称两汉。
      西汉为汉高祖刘邦所建立,建都长安;东汉为汉光武帝刘秀所建立,建都洛阳。其间曾有王莽篡汉自立的短暂新朝(公元8年-公元23年)。另外,部分学者亦将蜀汉列入汉朝的延续而将其归入汉朝的一部分,如此汉朝灭亡则是在263年,但大部分说法均将由刘备建立的蜀汉政权归入三国史中。
      两汉时期是当时世界上一个伟大的一段历史,汉高祖至汉文景时期的汉朝,经济实力直线上升,成为东方第一帝国,与西罗马并称两大帝国。中亚和西域各大国也都闻而惧之。而到了汉武帝时期,汉帝国已经成为世界上最强大的帝国,匈奴帝国战败而向北狼狈逃遁。张骞出西域首次开辟了著名的“丝绸之路”,开通了东西方贸易的通道,中国从此成为世界贸易体系的中心,直到一千多年后蒙古人的叛乱。正是因为汉朝的声威远播,外族开始称呼中国人为“汉人”,而汉朝人也乐于这样称呼自己,“汉”从此成为了伟大的中国华夏民族的永远的名字。
      汉代起初在汉高祖刘邦时根据五德始终说,定正朔为水德,到汉武帝时,又改正朔为土德,直到王莽建立新朝,方才采用刘向刘歆父子的说法,认为汉朝属于火德。汉光武帝光复汉室之后,正式承认了这种说法,从此确立汉朝正朔为火德,东汉及以后的史书如汉书、三国志等皆采用了这种说法。因此汉朝有时也被称为“炎汉”,又因汉朝皇帝姓刘而称“炎刘”。
      汉代为汉高祖刘邦建立的中国第二个大一统的王朝。前期定都长安,又称西汉、前汉;后期定都洛阳,又称东汉、后汉。 西汉是我国封建社会初期的一个强盛、富饶的王朝,它继承和巩固了秦朝开始的统一国家,经济繁荣,国力强盛、人民安乐,呈现出一派太平盛世的景象。在此期间,中国一直以世界强国的面目屹立于世界之林。因此,西汉王朝被视为中国历史上的第一个黄金时期。西汉共传十四帝,前后经历210年。
      西汉是中华民族发展史上的一个重要时期,中华各民族的核心汉族就是在这一时期出现的。自秦始皇统一中国后,原战国时各国的文化便相互渗透融合,到西汉时中华地区在典章制度、语言文字、文化教育、风俗习惯多方面都逐渐趋于统一,构成了共同的汉文化。从此中华地区的各族就出现了统一的汉族。汉族和周边各少数族都是汉代中国多民族国家的成员。汉族由于文明程度较高,在中国各兄弟民族中一直处于主导地位,这是历史发展和自然形成的结果。汉以后历代的朝代名称虽有变换,但汉族作为中国主体民族的地位始终未变。
      【国号释义】
      楚霸王项羽封刘邦为汉王,以后刘邦击败项羽,统一中国,改国号为“汉”。汉朝前期都长安,后期都洛阳,故从都城上有“西汉”和“东汉”,从时间上又有“前汉”和“后汉”之分。

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    Constitution of the PRC (2004)


    December 4, 1982 Fifth National People's Congress adopted the fifth meeting of December 4, 1982 the National People's Congress promulgated Notice

    According to April 12, 1988 Seventh National People's Congress adopted the first meeting of "the People's Republic of amendment to the Constitution," March 29, 1993 the Eighth National People's Congress adopted the first meeting of the "People's Republic of China amendment to the Constitution, "March 15, 1999 the Ninth National People's Congress adopted the second meeting of" the People's Republic of amendment to the Constitution "and the March 14, 2004 Tenth National People's Congress for the second meeting of through the "People's Republic of China Amendment to the Constitution" as amended


    Contents

    Preamble

    Chapter Master
    Chapter II the basic rights and obligations
    Chapter III national institutions
    Section I of the National People's Congress
    Section II, the President of People's Republic of China
    Section III of the State Council
    Section IV of the Central Military Commission
    Section V of the local People's Congress at all levels and local people's governments at all levels
    Section VI of the organs of self-government in ethnic autonomous areas
    VII People's Court and People's Procuratorate
    Chapter IV of the national flag, national anthem, national emblem, the capital of


    Preamble

    China is the world's oldest countries in the world. Chinese people of all ethnic groups work together to create a brilliant culture, have a glorious revolutionary tradition.
    After 1840, becoming China's feudal semi-colonial, semi-feudal country. The Chinese people for national independence, national liberation and democracy and freedom for the heroic struggle fought.
    The twentieth century, China has undergone great changes in history.
    1911 Revolution led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, abolished the feudal monarchy, the creation of the Republic of China. However, the Chinese people against imperialism and feudalism, the historical task is not yet complete.
    In 1949, Chairman Mao Zedong as leader of the Communist Party of China led the Chinese people of all ethnic groups, after a long and arduous armed struggle and other forms of struggle later, and finally the overthrow of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism, rule, and achieved a great victory for the new-democratic revolution, the establishment of the People's Republic of China. Since then, Chinese people have the powers of the state, to become masters of their country.
    People's Republic of China after the establishment of the progressive realization of our society by the new democratic transition to socialism. The socialist transformation of private ownership of means of production has been completed and the system of exploitation of man by man has been eliminated, the socialist system has been established. Led by the working class, based on the alliance of workers and peasants, the people's democratic dictatorship, in essence the dictatorship of the proletariat has been consolidated and developed. Chinese people and the Chinese People's Liberation Army defeated the imperialist, hegemonic aggression, sabotage and armed provocations, and safeguard national independence and security, and enhance the national defense. Economic development has made significant achievements, independent and relatively complete industrial system of socialism has basically taken shape, and agricultural production significantly. Education, science, culture, etc. With the great cause of socialist ideological education has achieved remarkable results. The majority of people's lives have been greatly improved.
    The victory of China's new democratic revolution and the achievements of the socialist cause, the Communist Party of China led the Chinese people of all ethnic groups, in Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought under the guidance of adhering to the truth, correcting errors and to overcome many difficulties and achieved. China will remain the primary stage of socialism. The fundamental task is to follow the socialist road with Chinese characteristics, to concentrate its effort on socialist modernization. Chinese people of all ethnic groups will continue under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and "Three Represents" under the guidance of adhering to the people's democratic dictatorship, adhere to the socialist road, persist in reform and opening up, constantly improve the social and the system, the development of the socialist market economy, develop socialist democracy, improve socialist legal system, self-reliance, hard work, the progressive realization of industry, agriculture, national defense and the modernization of science and technology to promote the material civilization, political civilization and spiritual civilization coordination development to build China into a prosperous, democratic and civilized socialist country.
    In China, the exploiting classes had been eliminated as a class, but class struggle in a certain range will be a long time. Hostile to the Chinese people and undermine China's socialist system and domestic and foreign hostile forces and hostile elements, we must fight.
    People's Republic of China and Taiwan is part of the sacred territory. To complete the great cause of reunification of the motherland, including Taiwan compatriots of all Chinese people, the sacred duty.
    The cause of socialist construction must rely on the workers, peasants and intellectuals, unite all forces that can be united. In the long-term process of revolution and construction, has been formed, led by the Communist Party of China, various democratic parties and the participation of various people's organizations, including all socialist workers, builders of the socialist cause, support for socialism and patriots supporting China's reunification patriots broadest patriotic united front, this united front will continue to consolidate and develop. Chinese People's Political Consultative are broadly representative of the united front organization, in the past played an important role in the history of the future in the country's political life, social life and activities for Friendship with Foreign Countries, in the socialist modernization drive, safeguard national unity and solidarity the struggle, it will further play an important role. CPC-led multi-party cooperation and political consultation system will be long-term existence and development.
    People's Republic of China is the common people of all ethnic groups to create a unified multi-ethnic country. Equality, unity and mutual assistance has been established socialist ethnic relations, and will continue to be strengthened. In the struggle to safeguard national unity, it is necessary to oppose the majority nationalism, mainly Han chauvinism, but also against the local nationalism. Countries to make every effort to promote national and common prosperity of all ethnic groups.
    China's achievements in revolution and construction with the support of the people of the world can not be separated from. China's future is the future of the world closer together. China adheres to an independent foreign policy, insist on mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual nonaggression, mutual noninterference in internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, peaceful coexistence and development of diplomatic relations with other countries and economic and cultural exchanges; firm in their opposition to the Empire , and hegemony, colonialism, with the unity of the peoples of the world in support of the oppressed nations and developing countries to achieve and safeguard national independence, the development of the just struggle of the national economy, to safeguard world peace and promoting human progress and efforts.
    The legal form of the Constitution of the Chinese people of all ethnic groups to confirm the outcome of the struggle to provide for the basic system of the country and the fundamental task is the country's basic law, and has supreme legal authority. People of all nationalities, all state organs and armed forces, all political parties and social organizations, business organizations, enterprises, must be the activities of the constitution as the fundamental norms of human dignity and responsibility to uphold the constitution to ensure that the duties of the implementation of the Constitution.


    Chapter Master

    The first is the People's Republic of China led by the working class, based on the alliance of workers and peasants, the people's democratic dictatorship of socialist state.
    The socialist system is the basic system of People's Republic of China. To prohibit any organization or individual to undermine the socialist system.
    The second People's Republic of China all power belongs to the people.
    The people exercise state power through the National People's Congress and Local People's Congress at all levels.
    People in accordance with the law, by various ways and forms, management of state affairs, manage economic and cultural undertakings, the management of social affairs.
    People's Republic of China the third country institutions the principle of democratic centralism.
    National People's Congress and Local People's Congress at various levels by the democratically elected, responsible to the people, subject to their supervision.
    The state administrative organs, judicial organs, the prosecution produced by the People's Congress, it is responsible, subject to its supervision.
    Central and local terms of the division of national institutions, following the unification of the central leadership, and give full play to local initiative, the principle of enthusiasm.
    Article IV of the National People's Republic of China are equal. The State protects the lawful rights of ethnic minorities and the interests of all ethnic groups to maintain and develop the equality, unity and mutual assistance relationship. The prohibition of any discrimination and oppression of the nation to prohibit the destruction of national unity and to create ethnic divisions.
    States, in accordance with the characteristics and needs of ethnic minorities, ethnic minority areas to help speed up economic and cultural development.
    Inhabited by various ethnic groups exercising regional autonomy in place, the establishment of self-government bodies, the exercise of autonomy. The autonomous areas are inalienable part of People's Republic of China.
    Of all nationalities have the freedom to use and develop their own spoken and written language of freedom, to preserve or reform their own customs.
    The implementation of the Fifth People's Republic of China law, and build a socialist country ruled by law.
    The socialist legal system to safeguard national unity and dignity.
    All legal, administrative or local rules and regulations shall contravene the Constitution.
    All state organs and armed forces, all political parties and social organizations, business organizations, enterprises must comply with the Constitution and the law. All in violation of the Constitution and the law must be investigated.
    Any organization or individual may have beyond the Constitution and the law.
    Sixth People's Republic of China's socialist economic system is based on the socialist public ownership of means of production, that is, collective ownership by the whole people and the working masses. Socialist public ownership supersedes the system of exploitation of man by man, and doing our best to implement, the principle of distribution according to work.
    Countries in the primary stage of socialism, uphold the public ownership is dominant and diverse forms of ownership of the common development of the basic economic system, adhere to distribution according to work is dominant and a variety of modes of distribution coexist system.
    Article VII of the state-owned economy, that is owned socialist economy, is the leading force in the national economy. The State guarantees the consolidation of state-owned economy and development.
    Article VIII of the implementation of the rural collective economic organizations, based on the household land contract system, the double-EC sub-operating system combination. In rural areas of production, supply and marketing, credit, consumer and other forms of cooperation in economy, the socialist economy under collective ownership by the working people. To participate in the rural collective economic organizations of the workers, have the right to the limits prescribed by law operators自留地, retention Shan, in household sideline production and raise privately owned livestock.
    Cities and towns in the handicraft, industrial, construction, transport, commerce, service sector industries such as various forms of cooperative economy is a socialist economy under collective ownership by the working people.
    National urban and rural collective economic organizations to protect the legitimate rights and interests, encouragement, guidance and assistance to the collective economic development.
    Article IX mineral, water, forests, mountains, grasslands, land, beaches and other natural resources are owned by the state, that is the whole people; by law belong to the collective of all the forests and mountains, grassland, wasteland, except the beach.
    The State guarantees the rational use of natural resources and protects rare animals and plants. To prohibit any organization or individual by whatever means of occupation or destruction of natural resources.
    Article X of the land belongs to the city state.
    Rural and peri-urban land, except by law belongs to all the outside countries are collectively owned; homestead and自留地, retention Hill, also belong to collectives.
    National needs in the public interest can be in accordance with the law on expropriation of land and charge or compensation.
    No organization or individual may appropriate, buy, sell or in any other form of illegal transfer of land. The right to use land in accordance with the provisions of the law the transfer.
    All use of land for organizations and individuals must be reasonable use of land.
    Article XI provisions of the law within the scope of the individual economy and private economy, such as non-public ownership economy, the socialist market economy is an important component of the.
    The state protects the individual economy and private economy, such as non-public economy of the legitimate rights and interests. The state shall encourage, support and guide the development of non-public ownership economy, and the non-public economy of supervision and management according to law.
    Article XII of the socialist public property is sacred and inviolable.
    The state protects socialist public property. To prohibit any organization or individual by whatever means of destruction or occupation of the country and collective property.
    Article XIII of the citizen's legitimate private property is inviolable.
    State protection of citizens in accordance with the law of private property and inheritance rights.
    National needs in the public interest can be in accordance with the law on the implementation of the private property of citizens and the collection of compensation or expropriation.
    [Notes]
    Article XIV of the country by increasing the enthusiasm of workers and technical level, the promotion of advanced science and technology, improve the economic management system and enterprise management system, implement the responsibility system for various forms of socialism, and improve labor organizations, to achieve continuous improvement in labor productivity and economic benefits, the development of social productive forces.
    State practice thrift and waste.
    Reasonable arrangements for the national accumulation and consumption, taking into account national, collective and individual interests, in the development of production, based on the gradual improvement of people's material life and cultural life.
    State shall establish and improve the level of economic development with social security system.
    Article XV of the socialist market economy countries.
    Countries to strengthen economic legislation, and improve macroeconomic regulation and control.
    State law prohibits any organization or individual to disturb the socio-economic order.
    Article XVI of state-owned enterprises in the framework of the law have the right to make their own decisions.
    State-owned enterprises in accordance with the law, through the trade unions and other forms on behalf of the General Assembly, the implementation of democratic management.
    Article XVII of collective economic organizations in complying with the law under the premise of independent autonomy to carry out economic activities.
    Collective economic organizations practice democratic management, in accordance with the law the election and removal of management, operation and management decisions on major issues.
    18th People's Republic of China permits foreign enterprises and other economic organizations or individuals in accordance with the provisions of the law People's Republic of China to invest in China, with Chinese enterprises or other economic organizations to conduct various forms of economic cooperation.
    In China of foreign enterprises and other foreign economic organizations, as well as Sino-foreign joint venture enterprises, the People's Republic of China must comply with the law. Their legitimate rights and interests of the protection of the law by the People's Republic of China.
    Article XIX of the national development of the socialist educational undertakings, to improve scientific and cultural level of people across the country.
    Countries a variety of schools, universal primary education, the development of secondary education, vocational education and higher education and the development of pre-school education.
    National development of educational facilities, illiteracy, the workers, peasants, national staff and other workers to carry out political, cultural, scientific, technical, business, education, and to encourage self-taught.
    The state encourages the collective economic organizations, business organizations, state enterprises and other social forces are organized in accordance with the law education.
    Countries to promote a national Putonghua.
    第二十条national development cause of the natural and social sciences, the popularization of scientific and technical knowledge, the results of scientific research and technological incentives for inventions.
    Article XXI national development of medical and health services, promotes modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, encourage and support the rural collective economic organizations, state enterprises and streets Organization organized a variety of medical and health facilities to the masses to carry out health activities to protect people's health .
    Developing sports in the country to carry out mass sports activities, and enhance the people's physique.
    Article twenty-second national development serving the people and socialism the cause of literature and art, news television, publishing and distribution utilities, libraries and other cultural centers, museums and cultural undertakings, to carry out mass cultural activities.
    The state protects sites, valuable cultural relics and other important historical and cultural heritage.
    Twenty-third article for the socialist train professionals in a variety of services, expanding the ranks of intellectuals, to create conditions to give full play to their socialist modernization construction.
    Article twenty-fourth through the ideal of universal education, moral education, culture, discipline and legal education in different areas in urban and rural masses in the formulation and implementation of the various codes, conventions, strengthening the construction of socialist spiritual civilization.
    Countries to promote love of the motherland, the people, labor, science, and the civic virtues of the people in patriotism, collectivism, internationalism and communism, dialectical materialism and historical materialism to the education, opposition to capitalism and feudalism and other decadent ideas.
    Twenty-fifth state to implement family planning, population growth with economic and social development plans of the country.
    Twenty-sixth state to protect and improve the living environment and ecological environment, prevent and control pollution and other public hazards.
    National organizations and to encourage afforestation, forest protection.
    Article twenty-seventh of all state organs to implement the principle of streamlining the implementation of the work of accountability, the implementation of staff training and appraisal system, and continuously improve the quality and efficiency, against the bureaucracy.
    All state organs and state staff must rely on the support of the people to keep in close contact with people, listen to people's views and suggestions, accept their supervision, and strive to serve the people.
    [Notes]
    Twenty-eighth state to maintain social order, the suppression of acts of treason and other crimes of endangering national security activities, the sanctions against the social order and undermine the socialist economy and other criminal activities, and punishes criminals and transformation.
    29th People's Republic of China belongs to the people of the armed forces. Its mission is to consolidate national defense, resist aggression, defend the motherland, and defend the people's peaceful labor, participate in national construction and strive to serve the people.
    Countries to strengthen the revolutionary armed forces, modernization and regularization of the building, and enhance the national defense forces.
    30th article of the administrative region of People's Republic of China is as follows:
    (A) The country is divided into provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities;
    (B) Provinces and autonomous regions are divided into autonomous prefectures, counties, autonomous counties and cities;
    (C) Counties and autonomous counties are divided into townships, nationality townships and towns.
    Municipalities and large cities are divided into districts and counties. Autonomous prefectures are divided into counties, autonomous counties and cities.
    Autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties are national autonomous areas.
    第三十一条countries, if necessary, may establish special administrative regions. In special administrative regions shall be in accordance with the specific circumstances of the system by the National People's Congress in the law.
    32nd People's Republic of China to protect foreigners in China's legitimate rights and interests of foreigners in China People's Republic of China must comply with the law.
    People's Republic of China for political reasons for requesting asylum to foreigners, could be given by the right of asylum.


    Chapter II the basic rights and obligations

    Article thirty-third who are People's Republic of China People's Republic of China nationality are citizens.
    People's Republic of China citizens are equal before the law.
    The state respects and safeguards human rights.
    Any citizens constitutional rights and the law, at the same time to fulfill the constitutional and legal obligations.
    34th People's Republic of China of at least 18 years old citizens, regardless of their nationality, race, sex, occupation, family background, religious belief, education, property status, length of residence, have the right to vote and to stand for election; but in accordance with the law be deprived of political rights, other than.
    35th People's Republic of China citizens have freedom of speech, press, of assembly, of association, of procession and of demonstration.
    Citizens of the 36th People's Republic of China freedom of religious belief.
    Any state organ, public organization or individual shall not be mandatory citizens do not believe in religion or religion, may discriminate against religious citizens and non-religious citizens.
    The state protects normal religious activities. No one may make use of religion to disrupt public order, impair the health of citizens, impede the activities of the national education system.
    Religious bodies and religious affairs are not subject to foreign domination.
    37th People's Republic of China citizens are not infringed upon personal freedom.
    Any citizen or approved by the People's Procuratorate or the people's court decision decided by the public security organ, free from arrest.
    Prohibition of unlawful detention and unlawful deprivation or other means to restrict the personal freedom of citizens, the prohibition of unlawful search of the body of citizens.
    38th People's Republic of China citizens are not violated human dignity. By any means is prohibited citizens Insult, libel, false framing.
    39th People's Republic of China citizens are not violated residential. The prohibition of illegal searches or illegal intrusion into residential citizens.
    40th People's Republic of China citizens freedom and privacy of correspondence are protected by law. In addition to national security or the need for the investigation of crimes by the public security organs or the prosecution procedures in accordance with the law to carry out checks on the communication, no organization or individual for any reason shall not infringe on civil freedom and privacy of correspondence.
    Citizens of the PRC第四十一条any state organ or functionary staff have the right to criticize and make suggestions; for any state organ or functionary of the law staff misconduct to the relevant state organs complaints, charges or exposures of the rights, but fabrication or distortion of facts for the frame-up frame-up.
    For citizens complaints, charges or exposures, the state organ concerned must investigate the facts to deal with. No one may suppress and combat the retaliation.
    As the state organ or functionary for violation of civil rights officers who have suffered losses, in accordance with the law right to compensation.
    42nd People's Republic of China citizens of the rights and obligations of labor.
    Countries through various means, to create conditions for employment, strengthen labor protection, the improvement of labor conditions, and in the development of production, based on the improvement of labor remuneration and benefits.
    Labor is the ability to work all the glorious duty of the citizens. State-owned enterprises and urban and rural collective economic organizations of the workers should be the masters of the country's attitude towards their work. The state promotes socialist labor emulation, and commends and rewards model and advanced workers. The state encourages citizens to engage in voluntary labor.
    National pre-employment of citizens of the necessary labor and employment training.
    43rd People's Republic of China the worker has the right to rest.
    National development workers to rest and recuperation facilities, the provisions of workers working hours and leave system.
    44th State enterprise in accordance with the law the cause of the trade union organizations, and state organs of the retirement system staff. The lives of retirees by the State and the protection of society.
    45th People's Republic of China citizens in the elderly, ill or disabled, the state and society from the right to material assistance. National development for the enjoyment of these rights by citizens in need of social insurance, social relief and medical and health undertakings.
    National and social security disabled soldier's life, pension families of the martyrs and give preferential treatment to families of military personnel.
    Arrangements for national and community to help blind, deaf-mute and other citizens with disabilities work, life and education.
    Citizens of the 46th People's Republic of China has the right to education and obligations.
    Train children and young people, in the moral, intellectual and physical development.
    Citizens of the 47th People's Republic of China to conduct scientific research, literary and artistic creation and other cultural activities. Countries engaged in education, science, technology, literature, art and other cultural undertakings of the citizens of the creative work is good for the people, to give encouragement and help.
    People's Republic of China in the 48th women's political, economic, cultural, social and family life to enjoy all aspects of equal rights with men.
    The state protects the rights and interests of women, men and women equal pay for equal work, training and selecting women cadres.
    Forty-ninth article of marriage, family, mother and child are protected by the state.
    Both spouses have the obligation to practice family planning.
    Parents of minor children to raise and educate the obligations of adult children have the obligation to support and assist parents.
    Prohibits the destruction of freedom of marriage, the prohibition of abuse of the elderly, women and children.
    50th Chinese People's Republic of China to protect the legitimate rights and interests of returned overseas Chinese and their relatives to protect the legitimate rights and interests.
    第五十一条People's Republic of China citizens in the exercise of freedom and rights, must not harm national, social, collective interests of citizens and other legal freedoms and rights.
    Citizens of the 52nd People's Republic of China to safeguard national unity and national unity of the country's obligations.
    53rd People's Republic of China citizens must abide by the Constitution and the law, keep state secrets, the Prevention of Cruelty to public property, compliance with labor discipline and compliance with public order, respect social ethics.
    Citizens of the 54th People's Republic of China to safeguard the motherland's security, honor and interests of the obligations, not to harm the security of the motherland, the honor and interest.
    Article 55th to defend the motherland, resisting aggression, People's Republic of China in each of the sacred duty of a citizen.
    Military service in accordance with the law and participate in the People's Republic of militias is the glorious duty of citizens.
    56th People's Republic of China citizens have the obligation to pay taxes in accordance with the law.


    Chapter III national institutions


    Section I of the National People's Congress

    People's Republic of China 57th National People's Congress is the highest organ of state power. It is the permanent organ of the National People's Congress Standing Committee.
    Article 58th National People's Congress and National People's Congress Standing Committee exercise the legislative power of the state.
    59th National People's Congres be the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities and special administrative regions and the composition of the elected representatives of the armed forces. The minority should have appropriate representation.
    National People's Congress election by the National People's Congress Standing Committee chair.
    National People's Congress and the selection method places by law.
    60th National People's Congres be a term of five years.
    National People's Congress two months before expiry of the term, the National People's Congress Standing Committee must complete the next National People's Congress elections. If elections can not be encountered in exceptional circumstances, by the National People's Congress Standing Committee to all members of more than two-thirds majority, the election could be postponed, the extension of the National People's Congress this term. In exceptional circumstances after the end of the year must be completed the next National People's Congress elections.
    第六十一条the National People's Congress session held once a year, by the National People's Congress Standing Committee to convene. If the National People's Congress Standing Committee deems it necessary, or more than one-fifth of the National People's Congress proposed to convene the interim meeting of the National People's Congress.
    National People's Congress meetings were held, the election of officers, chaired the meeting.
    Sixty-second article the National People's Congress exercises the following powers and functions:
    (A) to amend the constitution;
    (B) to supervise the enforcement of the Constitution;
    (C) the formulation and revision of criminal, civil, national institutions and other basic laws;
    (D) Election of People's Republic of China Chairman, Vice-Chairman;
    (E) According to the nomination of the President of People's Republic of China, the decision of the State Council, Prime Minister of the candidates; in accordance with the nomination of the Prime Minister of the State Council, the decision of the State Council, Vice-Premiers and State Councilors, Ministers, the Commission, the Auditor General, the Secretary-General of the candidates;
    (F) Election of the President of the Central Military Commission; Chairman of the Central Military Commission in accordance with the nomination of the Central Military Commission of the decision of other members of the candidate;
    (G) Election of the Supreme People's Court;
    (H) Election of the Supreme People's Procuratorate;
    (Ix) review and approve the national economic and social development plans and report on the implementation of plans;
    (J) examining and approving the state budget and budget performance reports;
    (K) to alter or annul the National People's Congress Standing Committee of the wrong decisions;
    (Xii) approve the establishment of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities to build;
    (13) decided to set up a Special Administrative Region and its systems;
    (14) to decide questions of war and peace;
    (15) should be the highest organ of state power by the exercise of other functions.
    Article 63rd National People's Congress the power to remove the following:
    (A) of the People's Republic of Chairman, Vice-Chairman;
    (B) of the State Council, Prime Minister, deputy prime minister, state ministers, the Commission, the Auditor General, the Secretary-General;
    (C) of the Central Military Commission of the Central Military Commission Chairman and other members of staff;
    (D) the Supreme People's Court;
    (E) of the Supreme People's Procuratorate.
    64th article of the amendments to the Constitution, by the National People's Congress Standing Committee, or more than one fifth of the National People's Congress proposed by the National People's Congress in more than two-thirds of all deputies of the majority.
    Legal and other motion by the National People's Congress adopted by a majority of all deputies.
    Article 65th National People's Congress Standing Committee composed of the following:
    Chairman,
    Vice chairman of a number of people,
    Secretary-General,
    Member of a number of people.
    The National People's Congress Standing Committee, the places should have the appropriate representative of the ethnic minorities.
    Election of the National People's Congress and the power to remove the National People's Congress Standing Committee members.
    The National People's Congress Standing Committee members shall serve as administrative, judicial and prosecutorial functions.
    Be the 66th National People's Congress Standing Committee of the term with the National People's Congress, the same term, which exercise their functions and powers to the next National People's Congress Standing Committee of the election of a new date.
    Chairman, vice-chairmen shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.
    Be the 67th National People's Congress Standing Committee exercise the following powers and functions:
    (A) to explain the Constitution and supervises its implementation;
    (B) should be in addition to the formulation and revision of the National People's Congress enacted the law other than the law;
    (C) of the National People's Congress in session, of the National People's Congress enacted laws to add and modify some, but not with the basic principles of legal conflict;
    (D) interpretation of the law;
    (E) of the National People's Congress in session, to examine and approve the national economic and social development plan, the state budget in the implementation process must be part of adjustment programs;
    (Vi) supervision of the State Council and Central Military Commission, Supreme People's Court and Supreme People's Procuratorate;
    (G) revocation of the Constitution of the State Council, the administrative laws and regulations, decisions and orders;
    (H) provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central organ of state power established by the Constitution, laws and administrative regulations and local laws and regulations conflict resolution;
    (Ix) the National People's Congress in session, in accordance with the nomination of the Prime Minister of the State Council, the decision of Ministers, the Committee Officer, Auditor-General, the Secretary-General of the candidates;
    (10) in the National People's Congress session, the President of the Central Military Commission in accordance with the nomination of the Central Military Commission of the decision of other members of the candidate;
    (11) According to the draw the attention of the Supreme People's Court, the appointment and removal of vice-president of the Supreme People's Court, the judiciary, the military trial of members of the Commission and Court;
    (12) According to the Supreme People's Procuratorate of the request, the appointment and removal of the Supreme People's Procuratorate Deputy Procurator General, prosecutors, prosecutors and military members of the Commission's Procuratorate, and the approval of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central People's Procuratorate of the appointment and removal;
    (13) to decide the appointment and removal of plenipotentiary representatives abroad;
    (14) has decided to conclude with foreign treaties and important agreements and the abolition of the approval;
    (15) provides the military and diplomatic personnel in the title of class system and class system of other specialized titles;
    (Xvi) the provisions and decided to grant the State medals and titles of honor;
    (17) decided to pardon;
    (18) in the National People's Congress in session, if they are subjected to armed aggression against the country or to fulfill international treaty to prevent the situation of aggression, decided to declare a state of war;
    (19) decided that a general mobilization or partial mobilization;
    (20) to decide the national or individual provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central state of emergency;
    (21) granted to the National People's Congress of the other terms.
    [Notes]
    Be the 68th National People's Congress Standing Committee chairman of the National People's Congress, presided over the work of the Standing Committee, convened by the National People's Congress Standing Committee meeting. Vice Chairman, the Secretary-General to assist the chairman of the work.
    Chairman, vice chairman, chairman of the Secretary-General of the Conference to deal with the National People's Congress Standing Committee on the important day-to-day work.
    Be the 69th National People's Congress Standing Committee of the National People's Congress is responsible for and report on their work.
    Be the 70th National People's Congress to establish national committees, the Law Commission, the Financial and Economic Committee, the Education, Science Culture and Health Committee, the Foreign Affairs Committee, Overseas Chinese Affairs Committee, and other need to set up a special committee. The National People's Congress session, the special committee by the National People's Congress Standing Committee's leadership.
    Various special committees of the National People's Congress and National People's Congress Standing Committee, under the leadership of research, deliberations and the preparation of the motion.
    第七十一条National People's Congress and National People's Congress Standing Committee, when deemed necessary, can be organized on specific issues the Commission of Inquiry and the Commission of Inquiry report, the resolution accordingly.
      Commission of Inquiry to investigate the time all the relevant state organs, social organizations and citizens have an obligation to provide it with the necessary materials.
    Article 72nd NPC and the NPC Standing Committee members have the right procedures in accordance with the law, proposed separately belong to the National People's Congres National People's Congres and the terms of reference of the Standing Committee's motion.
    Article 73rd National People's Congress in the National People's Congress session, the National People's Congress Standing Committee members during a meeting in the Standing Committee is entitled to in accordance with the law of procedure or of the State Council, ministries of the State Council, the Committee's question case. By the question of authority must be responsible for answer.
    Be the 74th National People's Congress, by the National People's Congress permitted the Bureau of the Conference, the National People's Congress in the intersessional period by the National People's Congress Standing Committee of the permit, from arrest or criminal trials.
    Be the 75th National People's Congress in the National People's Congress meetings and vote on the floor, from legal action.
    Be the 76th National People's Congress must play an exemplary role in abiding by the Constitution and the law, keep state secrets, and to participate in their production, work and social activities to assist the implementation of the Constitution and the law.
    NPC deputies should be elected with the units and people keep in close touch, listen to and reflect the opinions and demands of the people, and strive to serve the people.
    第七十七条National People's Congress elected by the supervisory unit. The original electoral units have the right procedures in accordance with the law to remove the elected representatives of the units.
    Be the 78th National People's Congress and National People's Congress Standing Committee of the organization and working procedures prescribed by law.


    Section II, the President of People's Republic of China

    79th People's Republic of China President, Vice-Chairman of the National People's Congress elections.
    The right to vote and to stand for election in at least 45 years of age can be selected as the People's Republic of China People's Republic of China Chairman, Vice-Chairman.
    People's Republic of China Chairman, Vice-Chairman of each term of office of the National People's Congress with a term of the same, shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.
    People's Republic of China President of the 80th National People's Congress in accordance with the decision and the National People's Congress Standing Committee's decision to announce the law, the appointment and removal of the State Council, Prime Minister, deputy prime minister, state ministers, the Commission, the Auditor General, the Secretary-General, awarded state medals and honorary titles, published an amnesty, declared a state of emergency, declare a state of war, issued a mobilization order.
    第八十一条Chairman, on behalf of People's Republic of China People's Republic of China to conduct the affairs of state activities, acceptance of foreign envoys; according to the National People's Congress Standing Committee's decision to dispatch and recall plenipotentiary representatives abroad, ratifies and abrogates treaties and important agreement.
    Vice-Chairman of the 82nd People's Republic of China to assist the Chairman in the work.
    People's Republic of China Vice-Chairman of the commission by the President, the President can act as part of the terms of reference.
    83rd People's Republic of China President, Vice-Chairman of the exercise of powers to the next National People's Congres elected Chairman, Vice-Chairman until his inauguration.
    Absence of the 84th President of the People's Republic of China, the successor to the President by the Vice-President posts.
    People's Republic of China Vice-President becomes vacant when the National People's Congress election.
    People's Republic of China President, Vice-President becomes vacant all the time, by the National People's Congres-election; in the by-election before the National People's Congress Standing Committee Chairman Deputy chairman temporarily.


    Section III of the State Council

    第八十五条People's Republic of China State Council, namely the Central People's Government, is the highest organ of state power of the executive arm, is the highest state administrative organs.
    86th article of the State Council, composed of the following:
    Prime Minister,
    Deputy Prime Minister a number of people,
    State a number of people,
    Ministers,
    Director of the Commission,
    Auditor-General,
    Secretary-General.
    The Premier of the State Council. Ministries, the implementation of the ministerial committee, director of accountability.
    The organization of the State Council by law.
    Be the 87th term of the State Council with the National People's Congress for the same period.
    Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister, State Councilor shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.
    Be the 88th Prime Minister of the State Council's work. Deputy Prime Minister, to assist the Prime Minister of state for work.
    Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister, State Councilor, Secretary-General of the State Council executive meeting.
    Prime Minister convened and presided over a State Council executive meeting and plenary meeting of the State Council.
    89th article of the State Council, exercise the following powers and functions:
    (A) in accordance with the Constitution and the law, the provisions of administrative measures, administrative regulations, decisions and orders issued;
    (B) to the National People's Congress or the Standing Committee of National People's Congress to move;
    (C) the provisions of the ministries and the Commission's mandate and responsibilities of the unified leadership of ministries and the work of the Commission, and the leadership does not belong to the ministries and commissions of the national administration;
    (D) of the unified leadership of the country where the state administrative organs at all levels of work, the provisions of the central government and provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central state administrative organs of the specific division of the terms of reference;
    (E) the preparation and implementation of national economic and social development plans and national budget;
    (Vi) leadership and management of the economy and of urban and rural construction;
    (Vii) leadership and management education, science, culture, health, sports and family planning work;
    (H) the leadership and management of civil affairs, public security, judicial administration and supervision;
    (Ix) the management of external affairs, with foreign treaties and agreements concluded;
    (X) direction and management of national defense construction;
    (Xi) the leadership and management of national affairs, the protection of minority rights and the equal right to self-government in national autonomous areas;
    (12) to protect the legitimate rights of overseas Chinese and interests of returned overseas Chinese and their relatives to protect the legitimate rights and interests;
    (Xiii) change or revoke the ministries, the Commission issued improper orders, directives and regulations;
    (Xiv) change or revoke the state administrative organs at all levels of inappropriate decisions and orders;
    (15) approve the establishment of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities of the region, the approval of autonomous prefectures, counties, autonomous counties and cities and regional division of the building;
    (Xvi) the decision in accordance with the law provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central parts of the framework of a state of emergency;
    (17) approved the establishment of administrative bodies, the appointment and removal in accordance with the law, training, assessment and reward executives;
    (18) National People's Congress and National People's Congress Standing Committee of the other functions conferred.
    90th article of the State Council, ministers, the committee in charge of the department's work; convened and presided over the meeting or the Department of the Treasury Committee, Treasury Committee meeting to discuss the decision of the major issues in the work of the department.
    Ministries and commissions of the State Council in accordance with the law and administrative regulations, decisions, orders, the authority in this sector, the release orders, directives and regulations.
    Article 91st authorities establish an audit of the State Council, departments under the State Council and local levels of government revenue and expenditure to the country's financial institutions and corporate organizations, the financial accounts of the cause, audit oversight.
    Audit authority, under the leadership of the State Council, Prime Minister, in accordance with the law the independent exercise of the right to audit and supervision from other administrative organs, social groups and individuals.
    Chosen the State Council in charge of the National People's Congress and reports on its work; in the National People's Congress in session, of the National People's Congress Standing Committee in charge of and report on their work.


    Section IV of the Central Military Commission

    93rd People's Republic of China the leadership of the Central Military Commission of the National Armed Forces.
    Central Military Commission composed of the following:
    Madam President,
    Vice-Chairman of a number of people,
    Member of a number of people.
    Chairman of the Central Military Commission to implement the responsibility system.
    The term of office of the Central Military Commission of the National People's Congress with a term of the same.
    Be the 94th President of the Central Military Commission of the National People's Congress and National People's Congress Standing Committee.


    Section V of the local People's Congress at all levels and local people's governments at all levels

    Be the 95th province, municipality, county, city, municipal districts, townships, nationality townships and towns to set up People's Congress and People's Government.
    Local people's congresses and local people's governments at all levels of the organization by law.
    Autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties to set up organs of self-government. Organs of self-government organizations and working under the Chapter V of the Constitution, section VI of the basic principles of the prescribed by law.
    Be the 96th local People's Congress at various levels are local organs of state power.
    Levels at or above the county where the establishment of People's Congress Standing Committee.
    Article provinces, municipalities and districts of the city People's Congress at the next lower level by the People's Congress elections; counties, cities not divided into districts, municipal districts, townships, nationality townships and towns of the People's Congress by direct election of the voters.
    Local people's congresses at all levels of representation and the selection method prescribed by law.
    Article 98th People's Congress at all levels of each five-year term.
    第九十九条local people's congresses at all levels in the administrative areas to ensure that the Constitution, laws and administrative regulations of the compliance and enforcement; the authority in accordance with the law, adopt and publish resolution to review and decide on local economic construction, cultural construction and public utilities construction projects.
    Place above the county level people's congresses at all levels to examine and approve the administrative area of the national economic and social development plans, budgets and their implementation of the report; the right to change or revoke this level People's Congress Standing Committee's decision inappropriate .
    Nationality of the People's Congress in accordance with the law can be taken by the authority of national characteristics suitable for specific measures.
    Article 100th provinces, municipalities directly under the Central People's Congress Standing Committee and their different constitution, laws and administrative regulations under the premise of conflict, they can formulate local laws and regulations, the National People's Congress Standing Committee.
    Article a local People's Congress at various levels and have the right to recall elected people's government of the level of governors and vice-governors, mayors and deputy mayors, county and sub-county, district and sub-district, mayor and vice mayor, mayor and deputy mayor.
    Place above the county level people's congress elections at all levels and the power to remove the class-level People's Court and the People's Procuratorate. Elect or recall the People's Procuratorate, People's Procuratorate, the higher level must be reported to the Attorney-General draws the attention of the class approved by the Standing Committee of the People's Congress.
    Article 2 provinces, municipalities and districts of the city People's Congress on behalf of the supervision of the units which elected them; counties, cities not divided into districts, municipal districts, townships, nationality townships and towns of the People's Congress on behalf of the voters supervision.
    Local levels on behalf of the People's Congress elections voters have the right units and procedures in accordance with the law to remove from their elected representatives.
    Article 3 of the local levels at or above the county People's Congress Standing Committee by the Director, Deputy Director of a number of members and a number of people, corresponding People's Congress is responsible for and report on their work.
    Place above the county level people's congress elections at all levels and have the right to recall the level of the People's Congress Standing Committee members.
    At or above the county levels of local People's Congress Standing Committee members shall serve as administrative, judicial and prosecutorial functions.
    Article 4 of the local levels at or above the county People's Congress Standing Committee discussed the decision of the administrative areas of all aspects of its work on major issues; supervision of the people's governments, people's courts and people's work; to remove the people's governments inappropriate decisions and orders; revoked under the People's Congress of a resolution inappropriate; the authority in accordance with the law decides the appointment and removal of personnel; in the level People's Congress in session, and the by-election on the recall level The People's Congress on behalf of the individual.
    Article 5 Local people's governments at various levels are local organs of state power at all levels of the executive, the local state administrative organs at all levels.
    Local governments at all levels to implement the governor, mayors, county, district, mayor, mayor in charge of the system.
    Article 6 The term of office of local governments at various levels with the level of each People's Congress for the same period.
    Article 7 People's Government above the county level in accordance with the law at all levels of authority, management of the administrative areas of the economy, education, science, culture, health and sports, urban and rural construction and finance, civil affairs, public security, national affairs, judicial administration, monitoring, family planning and other administrative work, decisions and orders issued, appointing, training, assessment and administrative staff incentive.
    Townships, nationality townships and towns of the People's Government, the implementation of this class of the People's Congress resolution and a higher level administrative decisions and orders, management of the administrative areas of administrative work.
    Provinces, municipalities directly under the Central People's Government for decision of the townships, nationality townships, towns, and regional division of the building.
    Article 8 or above the county level people's governments at all levels of local leadership in their various departments and the work of lower-level People's Government, the right to change or revoke the work of their subordinate departments and people's government's decision inappropriate.
    Article 9 or above the county level people's governments at all levels of local authorities set up audit. Local audit institutions at all levels in accordance with the law of independent audit and supervision to exercise the right of the People's Government and a corresponding authority is responsible for the audit.
    Article corresponding local people's governments in charge of People's Congress and reports on its work. Or above the county level people's governments at all levels in the local People's Congress of the class in session, the corresponding People's Congress Standing Committee in charge of and report on their work.
    The local level people's governments at all levels of the state administrative organs in charge of and report on their work. Local people's governments at all levels are under the unified leadership of the State Council, the state administrative organs, are subject to the State Council.
    Article 111th urban and rural residents set up by the neighborhood or village committee is the grass-roots mass self-government organizations. Neighborhood, the village committee director, deputy director and members of the election by the residents. Neighborhood and village committees with the relationship between the grass-roots political power by law.
    Neighborhood and village committees for people's mediation, public security, public health, such as commissions, for the living area of public affairs and public welfare undertakings, and the mediation of civil disputes, help maintain social order, and to reflect their views of the people's government, the requirements and make recommendations .


    Section VI of the organs of self-government in ethnic autonomous areas

    112th Article of the organs of self-government in ethnic autonomous areas are autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties of the People's Congress and People's Government.
    Article 113th autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties in The People's Congress, with the exception of the implementation of regional autonomy on behalf of the nation, the other living in the administrative areas of the nation also should have appropriate representation.
    Autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties of the People's Congress Standing Committee in exercising regional autonomy should be a citizen of the national director or deputy director.
    Article 114th President of the autonomous region, autonomous prefecture or autonomous county from exercising regional autonomy as the nation's citizens.
    Article 115th autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties exercise of the constitutional organs of self-government provisions of Chapter III of Section V in terms of local state organs, at the same time in accordance with the Constitution, the Law on Regional Ethnic Autonomy and other laws mandate the exercise of autonomy, according to the local the actual situation in the implementation of national laws and policies.
    Article 116th national autonomous areas have the right of the People's Congress in accordance with local national political, economic and cultural characteristics, the development of self-government regulations and separate regulations. Autonomous self-government regulations and separate regulations of the National People's Congress Standing Committee approved the entry into force. Autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties of self-government regulations and separate regulations, the provincial or autonomous regional People's Congress Standing Committee approved the entry into force, they shall be reported to the National People's Congress Standing Committee.
    117th Article of the organs of self-government in ethnic autonomous areas have the management of local financial autonomy. Those who belong to the financial system in accordance with the national autonomous areas of revenue, should be carried out by organs of self-government of autonomous areas independently arrange the use of.
    118th Article of the organs of self-government in ethnic autonomous areas in the national plans under the guidance of independently arrange and manage local economic construction.
    The development of national resources in the autonomous areas, the construction of a time when enterprises should take care of the interests of national autonomous areas.
    119th Article of the organs of self-government in national autonomous areas independently of the local management of education, science, culture, health and sports, to protect and organize the nation's cultural heritage, development and prosperity of the national culture.
    120th Article of the organs of self-government in ethnic autonomous areas in accordance with the country's military system and the actual needs of the local approval of the State Council, may organize the local authorities to maintain social order, public security forces.
    Article 121st organs of self-government in ethnic autonomous areas perform their duties in accordance with the provisions of autonomous local self-government Ordinance, the use of a common local language or languages.
    Article from the 122nd national financial, material and technology to help speed up the development of ethnic minorities in economic construction and cultural construction.
    Countries to help from the local ethnic minority autonomous areas train large numbers of cadres at various levels, a variety of professionals and skilled workers.


    VII People's Court and People's Procuratorate

    People's Republic of China People's Court is the 123rd judicial organs of the State.
    People's Republic of China Supreme People's Court, the 124th set up, local people's courts and military courts and other special people's courts.
    The term of office of the Supreme People's Court with the National People's Congress, the same term, shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.
    People's organizations by law.
    People's Court case be the 125th, with the exception of the law in particular circumstances, be open to the public. The accused has the right to be defended.
    People's Court in the 126th article in accordance with the law exercise judicial power independently, free from administrative organs, social groups and individuals.
    Article 127th Supreme People's Court is the highest judicial organ.
    The Supreme People's Court supervision of the local people's courts and special people's courts at all levels of the trial, the higher people's court supervision of the work of lower-level people's courts.
    Supreme People's Court, the 128th article of the National People's Congress and National People's Congress Standing Committee. Local people's courts at all levels of state power which created the authority responsible.
    129th People's Republic of China People's Procuratorate is the country's legal supervision organs.
    The establishment of the 130th Article of the Supreme People's Procuratorate, People's Republic of China, People's Procuratorate and the local levels, military procuratorates and other special people's procuratorates.
    The Supreme People's Procuratorate of each term of office of the National People's Congress with a term of the same, shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.
    People's organizations by law.
    Article 131st People's Procuratorate in accordance with the law the independent exercise of prosecutorial power, not subject to administrative organ, public organization or individual.
    Article 132nd Supreme People's Procuratorate is the highest prosecution.
    The leadership of the Supreme People's Procuratorate and the local people of work devoted to the People's Procuratorate, the higher the leadership of the People's Procuratorate of the People's Procuratorate, the work of subordinates.
    133rd article of the Supreme People's National People's Congress and National People's Congress Standing Committee. People's Procuratorate, local levels of state power which created the People's Procuratorate organs and is responsible for the higher level.
    Article 134th they have the right to use the national language of the right to conduct litigation. People's Court and People's Procuratorate are not proficient in the language of the local common people to participate in the proceedings, should be translating for them.
    Where ethnic minorities live in or have been living together for multi-ethnic areas, it should be in local language and proceed with the hearing; indictments, judgments, notices and other instruments should be based on actual need to use a generic or local languages.
    Article 135th People's Court, People's Procuratorate and the Public Security Organs in Handling Criminal Cases, the division should be responsible for co-ordination, mutual restraint, in order to ensure effective implementation of the law accurately.


    Chapter IV of the national flag, national anthem, national emblem, the capital of

    People's Republic of China is the 136th five-star red flag.
    People's Republic of China national anthem is "Volunteer march."
    137th People's Republic of China National Emblem, the middle of Tiananmen Square, the five-star shining, surrounded by谷穗and gear.
    138th is the capital of Beijing People's Republic of China.
    Constitution of the PRC (2004)


    December 4, 1982 Fifth National People's Congress adopted the fifth meeting of December 4, 1982 the National People's Congress promulgated Notice

    According to April 12, 1988 Seventh National People's Congress adopted the first meeting of "the People's Republic of amendment to the Constitution," March 29, 1993 the Eighth National People's Congress adopted the first meeting of the "People's Republic of China amendment to the Constitution, "March 15, 1999 the Ninth National People's Congress adopted the second meeting of" the People's Republic of amendment to the Constitution "and the March 14, 2004 Tenth National People's Congress for the second meeting of through the "People's Republic of China Amendment to the Constitution" as amended


    Contents

    Preamble

    Chapter Master
    Chapter II the basic rights and obligations
    Chapter III national institutions
    Section I of the National People's Congress
    Section II, the President of People's Republic of China
    Section III of the State Council
    Section IV of the Central Military Commission
    Section V of the local People's Congress at all levels and local people's governments at all levels
    Section VI of the organs of self-government in ethnic autonomous areas
    VII People's Court and People's Procuratorate
    Chapter IV of the national flag, national anthem, national emblem, the capital of


    Preamble

    China is the world's oldest countries in the world. Chinese people of all ethnic groups work together to create a brilliant culture, have a glorious revolutionary tradition.
    After 1840, becoming China's feudal semi-colonial, semi-feudal country. The Chinese people for national independence, national liberation and democracy and freedom for the heroic struggle fought.
    The twentieth century, China has undergone great changes in history.
    1911 Revolution led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, abolished the feudal monarchy, the creation of the Republic of China. However, the Chinese people against imperialism and feudalism, the historical task is not yet complete.
    In 1949, Chairman Mao Zedong as leader of the Communist Party of China led the Chinese people of all ethnic groups, after a long and arduous armed struggle and other forms of struggle later, and finally the overthrow of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism, rule, and achieved a great victory for the new-democratic revolution, the establishment of the People's Republic of China. Since then, Chinese people have the powers of the state, to become masters of their country.
    People's Republic of China after the establishment of the progressive realization of our society by the new democratic transition to socialism. The socialist transformation of private ownership of means of production has been completed and the system of exploitation of man by man has been eliminated, the socialist system has been established. Led by the working class, based on the alliance of workers and peasants, the people's democratic dictatorship, in essence the dictatorship of the proletariat has been consolidated and developed. Chinese people and the Chinese People's Liberation Army defeated the imperialist, hegemonic aggression, sabotage and armed provocations, and safeguard national independence and security, and enhance the national defense. Economic development has made significant achievements, independent and relatively complete industrial system of socialism has basically taken shape, and agricultural production significantly. Education, science, culture, etc. With the great cause of socialist ideological education has achieved remarkable results. The majority of people's lives have been greatly improved.
    The victory of China's new democratic revolution and the achievements of the socialist cause, the Communist Party of China led the Chinese people of all ethnic groups, in Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought under the guidance of adhering to the truth, correcting errors and to overcome many difficulties and achieved. China will remain the primary stage of socialism. The fundamental task is to follow the socialist road with Chinese characteristics, to concentrate its effort on socialist modernization. Chinese people of all ethnic groups will continue under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and "Three Represents" under the guidance of adhering to the people's democratic dictatorship, adhere to the socialist road, persist in reform and opening up, constantly improve the social and the system, the development of the socialist market economy, develop socialist democracy, improve socialist legal system, self-reliance, hard work, the progressive realization of industry, agriculture, national defense and the modernization of science and technology to promote the material civilization, political civilization and spiritual civilization coordination development to build China into a prosperous, democratic and civilized socialist country.
    In China, the exploiting classes had been eliminated as a class, but class struggle in a certain range will be a long time. Hostile to the Chinese people and undermine China's socialist system and domestic and foreign hostile forces and hostile elements, we must fight.
    People's Republic of China and Taiwan is part of the sacred territory. To complete the great cause of reunification of the motherland, including Taiwan compatriots of all Chinese people, the sacred duty.
    The cause of socialist construction must rely on the workers, peasants and intellectuals, unite all forces that can be united. In the long-term process of revolution and construction, has been formed, led by the Communist Party of China, various democratic parties and the participation of various people's organizations, including all socialist workers, builders of the socialist cause, support for socialism and patriots supporting China's reunification patriots broadest patriotic united front, this united front will continue to consolidate and develop. Chinese People's Political Consultative are broadly representative of the united front organization, in the past played an important role in the history of the future in the country's political life, social life and activities for Friendship with Foreign Countries, in the socialist modernization drive, safeguard national unity and solidarity the struggle, it will further play an important role. CPC-led multi-party cooperation and political consultation system will be long-term existence and development.
    People's Republic of China is the common people of all ethnic groups to create a unified multi-ethnic country. Equality, unity and mutual assistance has been established socialist ethnic relations, and will continue to be strengthened. In the struggle to safeguard national unity, it is necessary to oppose the majority nationalism, mainly Han chauvinism, but also against the local nationalism. Countries to make every effort to promote national and common prosperity of all ethnic groups.
    China's achievements in revolution and construction with the support of the people of the world can not be separated from. China's future is the future of the world closer together. China adheres to an independent foreign policy, insist on mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual nonaggression, mutual noninterference in internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, peaceful coexistence and development of diplomatic relations with other countries and economic and cultural exchanges; firm in their opposition to the Empire , and hegemony, colonialism, with the unity of the peoples of the world in support of the oppressed nations and developing countries to achieve and safeguard national independence, the development of the just struggle of the national economy, to safeguard world peace and promoting human progress and efforts.
    The legal form of the Constitution of the Chinese people of all ethnic groups to confirm the outcome of the struggle to provide for the basic system of the country and the fundamental task is the country's basic law, and has supreme legal authority. People of all nationalities, all state organs and armed forces, all political parties and social organizations, business organizations, enterprises, must be the activities of the constitution as the fundamental norms of human dignity and responsibility to uphold the constitution to ensure that the duties of the implementation of the Constitution.


    Chapter Master

    The first is the People's Republic of China led by the working class, based on the alliance of workers and peasants, the people's democratic dictatorship of socialist state.
    The socialist system is the basic system of People's Republic of China. To prohibit any organization or individual to undermine the socialist system.
    The second People's Republic of China all power belongs to the people.
    The people exercise state power through the National People's Congress and Local People's Congress at all levels.
    People in accordance with the law, by various ways and forms, management of state affairs, manage economic and cultural undertakings, the management of social affairs.
    People's Republic of China the third country institutions the principle of democratic centralism.
    National People's Congress and Local People's Congress at various levels by the democratically elected, responsible to the people, subject to their supervision.
    The state administrative organs, judicial organs, the prosecution produced by the People's Congress, it is responsible, subject to its supervision.
    Central and local terms of the division of national institutions, following the unification of the central leadership, and give full play to local initiative, the principle of enthusiasm.
    Article IV of the National People's Republic of China are equal. The State protects the lawful rights of ethnic minorities and the interests of all ethnic groups to maintain and develop the equality, unity and mutual assistance relationship. The prohibition of any discrimination and oppression of the nation to prohibit the destruction of national unity and to create ethnic divisions.
    States, in accordance with the characteristics and needs of ethnic minorities, ethnic minority areas to help speed up economic and cultural development.
    Inhabited by various ethnic groups exercising regional autonomy in place, the establishment of self-government bodies, the exercise of autonomy. The autonomous areas are inalienable part of People's Republic of China.
    Of all nationalities have the freedom to use and develop their own spoken and written language of freedom, to preserve or reform their own customs.
    The implementation of the Fifth People's Republic of China law, and build a socialist country ruled by law.
    The socialist legal system to safeguard national unity and dignity.
    All legal, administrative or local rules and regulations shall contravene the Constitution.
    All state organs and armed forces, all political parties and social organizations, business organizations, enterprises must comply with the Constitution and the law. All in violation of the Constitution and the law must be investigated.
    Any organization or individual may have beyond the Constitution and the law.
    Sixth People's Republic of China's socialist economic system is based on the socialist public ownership of means of production, that is, collective ownership by the whole people and the working masses. Socialist public ownership supersedes the system of exploitation of man by man, and doing our best to implement, the principle of distribution according to work.
    Countries in the primary stage of socialism, uphold the public ownership is dominant and diverse forms of ownership of the common development of the basic economic system, adhere to distribution according to work is dominant and a variety of modes of distribution coexist system.
    Article VII of the state-owned economy, that is owned socialist economy, is the leading force in the national economy. The State guarantees the consolidation of state-owned economy and development.
    Article VIII of the implementation of the rural collective economic organizations, based on the household land contract system, the double-EC sub-operating system combination. In rural areas of production, supply and marketing, credit, consumer and other forms of cooperation in economy, the socialist economy under collective ownership by the working people. To participate in the rural collective economic organizations of the workers, have the right to the limits prescribed by law operators自留地, retention Shan, in household sideline production and raise privately owned livestock.
    Cities and towns in the handicraft, industrial, construction, transport, commerce, service sector industries such as various forms of cooperative economy is a socialist economy under collective ownership by the working people.
    National urban and rural collective economic organizations to protect the legitimate rights and interests, encouragement, guidance and assistance to the collective economic development.
    Article IX mineral, water, forests, mountains, grasslands, land, beaches and other natural resources are owned by the state, that is the whole people; by law belong to the collective of all the forests and mountains, grassland, wasteland, except the beach.
    The State guarantees the rational use of natural resources and protects rare animals and plants. To prohibit any organization or individual by whatever means of occupation or destruction of natural resources.
    Article X of the land belongs to the city state.
    Rural and peri-urban land, except by law belongs to all the outside countries are collectively owned; homestead and自留地, retention Hill, also belong to collectives.
    National needs in the public interest can be in accordance with the law on expropriation of land and charge or compensation.
    No organization or individual may appropriate, buy, sell or in any other form of illegal transfer of land. The right to use land in accordance with the provisions of the law the transfer.
    All use of land for organizations and individuals must be reasonable use of land.
    Article XI provisions of the law within the scope of the individual economy and private economy, such as non-public ownership economy, the socialist market economy is an important component of the.
    The state protects the individual economy and private economy, such as non-public economy of the legitimate rights and interests. The state shall encourage, support and guide the development of non-public ownership economy, and the non-public economy of supervision and management according to law.
    Article XII of the socialist public property is sacred and inviolable.
    The state protects socialist public property. To prohibit any organization or individual by whatever means of destruction or occupation of the country and collective property.
    Article XIII of the citizen's legitimate private property is inviolable.
    State protection of citizens in accordance with the law of private property and inheritance rights.
    National needs in the public interest can be in accordance with the law on the implementation of the private property of citizens and the collection of compensation or expropriation.
    [Notes]
    Article XIV of the country by increasing the enthusiasm of workers and technical level, the promotion of advanced science and technology, improve the economic management system and enterprise management system, implement the responsibility system for various forms of socialism, and improve labor organizations, to achieve continuous improvement in labor productivity and economic benefits, the development of social productive forces.
    State practice thrift and waste.
    Reasonable arrangements for the national accumulation and consumption, taking into account national, collective and individual interests, in the development of production, based on the gradual improvement of people's material life and cultural life.
    State shall establish and improve the level of economic development with social security system.
    Article XV of the socialist market economy countries.
    Countries to strengthen economic legislation, and improve macroeconomic regulation and control.
    State law prohibits any organization or individual to disturb the socio-economic order.
    Article XVI of state-owned enterprises in the framework of the law have the right to make their own decisions.
    State-owned enterprises in accordance with the law, through the trade unions and other forms on behalf of the General Assembly, the implementation of democratic management.
    Article XVII of collective economic organizations in complying with the law under the premise of independent autonomy to carry out economic activities.
    Collective economic organizations practice democratic management, in accordance with the law the election and removal of management, operation and management decisions on major issues.
    18th People's Republic of China permits foreign enterprises and other economic organizations or individuals in accordance with the provisions of the law People's Republic of China to invest in China, with Chinese enterprises or other economic organizations to conduct various forms of economic cooperation.
    In China of foreign enterprises and other foreign economic organizations, as well as Sino-foreign joint venture enterprises, the People's Republic of China must comply with the law. Their legitimate rights and interests of the protection of the law by the People's Republic of China.
    Article XIX of the national development of the socialist educational undertakings, to improve scientific and cultural level of people across the country.
    Countries a variety of schools, universal primary education, the development of secondary education, vocational education and higher education and the development of pre-school education.
    National development of educational facilities, illiteracy, the workers, peasants, national staff and other workers to carry out political, cultural, scientific, technical, business, education, and to encourage self-taught.
    The state encourages the collective economic organizations, business organizations, state enterprises and other social forces are organized in accordance with the law education.
    Countries to promote a national Putonghua.
    第二十条national development cause of the natural and social sciences, the popularization of scientific and technical knowledge, the results of scientific research and technological incentives for inventions.
    Article XXI national development of medical and health services, promotes modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, encourage and support the rural collective economic organizations, state enterprises and streets Organization organized a variety of medical and health facilities to the masses to carry out health activities to protect people's health .
    Developing sports in the country to carry out mass sports activities, and enhance the people's physique.
    Article twenty-second national development serving the people and socialism the cause of literature and art, news television, publishing and distribution utilities, libraries and other cultural centers, museums and cultural undertakings, to carry out mass cultural activities.
    The state protects sites, valuable cultural relics and other important historical and cultural heritage.
    Twenty-third article for the socialist train professionals in a variety of services, expanding the ranks of intellectuals, to create conditions to give full play to their socialist modernization construction.
    Article twenty-fourth through the ideal of universal education, moral education, culture, discipline and legal education in different areas in urban and rural masses in the formulation and implementation of the various codes, conventions, strengthening the construction of socialist spiritual civilization.
    Countries to promote love of the motherland, the people, labor, science, and the civic virtues of the people in patriotism, collectivism, internationalism and communism, dialectical materialism and historical materialism to the education, opposition to capitalism and feudalism and other decadent ideas.
    Twenty-fifth state to implement family planning, population growth with economic and social development plans of the country.
    Twenty-sixth state to protect and improve the living environment and ecological environment, prevent and control pollution and other public hazards.
    National organizations and to encourage afforestation, forest protection.
    Article twenty-seventh of all state organs to implement the principle of streamlining the implementation of the work of accountability, the implementation of staff training and appraisal system, and continuously improve the quality and efficiency, against the bureaucracy.
    All state organs and state staff must rely on the support of the people to keep in close contact with people, listen to people's views and suggestions, accept their supervision, and strive to serve the people.
    [Notes]
    Twenty-eighth state to maintain social order, the suppression of acts of treason and other crimes of endangering national security activities, the sanctions against the social order and undermine the socialist economy and other criminal activities, and punishes criminals and transformation.
    29th People's Republic of China belongs to the people of the armed forces. Its mission is to consolidate national defense, resist aggression, defend the motherland, and defend the people's peaceful labor, participate in national construction and strive to serve the people.
    Countries to strengthen the revolutionary armed forces, modernization and regularization of the building, and enhance the national defense forces.
    30th article of the administrative region of People's Republic of China is as follows:
    (A) The country is divided into provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities;
    (B) Provinces and autonomous regions are divided into autonomous prefectures, counties, autonomous counties and cities;
    (C) Counties and autonomous counties are divided into townships, nationality townships and towns.
    Municipalities and large cities are divided into districts and counties. Autonomous prefectures are divided into counties, autonomous counties and cities.
    Autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties are national autonomous areas.
    第三十一条countries, if necessary, may establish special administrative regions. In special administrative regions shall be in accordance with the specific circumstances of the system by the National People's Congress in the law.
    32nd People's Republic of China to protect foreigners in China's legitimate rights and interests of foreigners in China People's Republic of China must comply with the law.
    People's Republic of China for political reasons for requesting asylum to foreigners, could be given by the right of asylum.


    Chapter II the basic rights and obligations

    Article thirty-third who are People's Republic of China People's Republic of China nationality are citizens.
    People's Republic of China citizens are equal before the law.
    The state respects and safeguards human rights.
    Any citizens constitutional rights and the law, at the same time to fulfill the constitutional and legal obligations.

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